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Adrenaclick (Epinephrine) - Description and Clinical Pharmacology

 
 



DESCRIPTION

Adrenaclick (epinephrine injection, USP) auto-injector 0.3 mg and 0.15 mg is an auto-injector and a combination product containing drug and device components.

Each Adrenaclick 0.3 mg delivers a single dose of 0.3 mg epinephrine from epinephrine injection, USP (0.3 mL) in a sterile solution.

Each Adrenaclick 0.15 mg delivers a single dose of 0.15 mg epinephrine from epinephrine injection, USP (0.15 mL) in a sterile solution.

Adrenaclick 0.3 mg and Adrenaclick 0.15 mg each contain 1.1 mL of epinephrine solution. 0.3 mL and 0.15 mL epinephrine solution are dispensed for Adrenaclick 0.3 mg and Adrenaclick 0.15 mg, respectively, when activated. The solution remaining after activation is not available for future use and should be discarded.

Each 0.3 mL in Adrenaclick 0.3 mg contains 0.3 mg epinephrine, 2.6 mg sodium chloride, not more than 1.5 mg chlorobutanol, 0.45 mg sodium bisulfite, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to adjust pH, and water for injection. The pH range is 2.2-5.0.

Each 0.15 mL in Adrenaclick 0.15 mg contains 0.15 mg epinephrine, 1.3 mg sodium chloride, not more than 0.75 mg chlorobutanol, 0.225 sodium bisulfite, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to adjust pH, and water for injection. The pH range is 2.2-5.0.

Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic catecholamine. Chemically, epinephrine is (-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-α-[(methylamino)methyl]benzyl alcohol with the following structure:

Epinephrine solution deteriorates rapidly on exposure to air or light, turning pink from oxidation to adrenochrome and brown from the formation of melanin. Replace Adrenaclick if the epinephrine solution appears discolored (pinkish or brown color), cloudy, or contains particles.

Thoroughly review the patient instructions and operation of Adrenaclick with patients and caregivers prior to use [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Epinephrine acts on both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors.

Pharmacodynamics

Through its action on alpha-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine lessens the vasodilation and increased vascular permeability that occurs during anaphylaxis, which can lead to loss of intravascular fluid volume and hypotension.

Through its action on beta-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine causes bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and helps alleviate bronchospasm, wheezing, and dyspnea that may occur during anaphylaxis.

Epinephrine also alleviates pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema, and may relieve gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms associated with anaphylaxis because of its relaxer effects on the smooth muscle of the stomach, intestine, uterus and urinary bladder.

When given intramuscularly or subcutaneously, epinephrine has a rapid onset and short duration of action.

NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of epinephrine have not been conducted.

Epinephrine and other catecholamines have been shown to have mutagenic potential in vitro and to be an oxidative mutagen in a WP2 bacterial reverse mutation assay.

Epinephrine was positive in the DNA Repair test with B. subtilis (REC) assay, but was not mutagenic in the Salmonella bacterial reverse mutation assay.

The potential for epinephrine to impair fertility has not been evaluated.

This should not prevent the use of epinephrine under the conditions noted under Indications and Usage (1).

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