Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of adenosine. Adenosine was negative for genotoxic potential in the Salmonella (Ames Test) and mammalian Microsome Assay.
Adenosine, however, like other nucleosides at millimolar concentrations present for several doubling times of cells in culture, is known to produce a variety of chromosomal alterations. Fertility studies in animals have not been conducted with adenosine.
Pregnancy Category C
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with adenosine; nor have studies been performed in pregnant women. As adenosine is a naturally occurring material, widely dispersed throughout the body, no fetal effects would be anticipated. However, since it is not known whether adenosine can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women, adenosine should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
The half-life of adenosine injection is less than 10 seconds. Thus, adverse effects are generally rapidly self-limiting. Treatment of any prolonged adverse effects should be individualized and be directed toward the specific effect. Methylxanthines, such as caffeine and theophylline, are competitive antagonists of adenosine.