DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The use of antihyperglycemic therapy in the management of type 2 diabetes should be individualized on the basis of effectiveness and tolerability while not exceeding the maximum recommended daily dose of pioglitazone 45 mg and metformin 2550 mg.
Selecting the starting dose of ACTOPLUS MET should be based on the patient's current regimen of pioglitazone and/or metformin. After initiation of ACTOPLUS MET or with dose increase, patients should be carefully monitored for adverse events related to fluid retention (see
). ACTOPLUS MET should be given in divided daily doses with meals to reduce the gastrointestinal side effects associated with metformin.
Starting dose for patients inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy
Based on the usual starting dose of pioglitazone (15-30 mg daily), ACTOPLUS MET may be initiated at either the 15 mg/500 mg or 15 mg/850 mg tablet strength once or twice daily, and gradually titrated after assessing adequacy of therapeutic response.
Starting dose for patients who initially responded to pioglitazone monotherapy and require additional glycemic control
Based on the usual starting doses of metformin (500 mg twice daily or 850 mg daily), ACTOPLUS MET may be initiated at either the 15 mg/500 mg twice daily or 15 mg/850 mg tablet strength once daily, and gradually titrated after assessing adequacy of therapeutic response.
Starting dose for patients switching from combination therapy of pioglitazone plus metformin as separate tablets
ACTOPLUS MET may be initiated with either the 15 mg/500 mg or 15 mg/850 mg tablet strengths based on the dose of pioglitazone and metformin already being taken.
No studies have been performed specifically examining the safety and efficacy of ACTOPLUS MET in patients previously treated with other oral hypoglycemic agents and switched to ACTOPLUS MET. Any change in therapy of type 2 diabetes should be undertaken with care and appropriate monitoring as changes in glycemic control can occur.
Sufficient time should be given to assess adequacy of therapeutic response. Ideally, the response to therapy should be evaluated using A1C, which is a better indicator of long-term glycemic control than FPG alone. A1C reflects glycemia over the past two to three months. In clinical use, it is recommended that patients be treated with ACTOPLUS MET for a period of time adequate to evaluate change in A1C (8-12 weeks) unless glycemic control as measured by FPG deteriorates.
Special Patient Populations
ACTOPLUS MET is not recommended for use in pregnancy or for use in pediatric patients.
The initial and maintenance dosing of ACTOPLUS MET should be conservative in patients with advanced age, due to the potential for decreased renal function in this population. Any dosage adjustment should be based on a careful assessment of renal function. Generally, elderly, debilitated, and malnourished patients should not be titrated to the maximum dose of ACTOPLUS MET. Monitoring of renal function is necessary to aid in prevention of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, particularly in the elderly (see
Therapy with ACTOPLUS MET should not be initiated if the patient exhibits clinical evidence of active liver disease or increased serum transaminase levels (ALT greater than 2.5 times the upper limit of normal) at start of therapy (see
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Populations, Hepatic Insufficiency). Liver enzyme monitoring is recommended in all patients prior to initiation of therapy with ACTOPLUS MET and periodically thereafter (see
PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests).
Maximum Recommended Dose
ACTOPLUS MET tablets are available as a 15 mg pioglitazone plus 500 mg metformin or a 15 mg pioglitazone plus 850 mg metformin formulation for oral administration. The maximum recommended dose for pioglitazone is 45 mg daily. The maximum recommended daily dose for metformin is 2550 mg in adults.