AcetaZOLAMIDE, an inhibitor of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, is a white to faintly yellowish white crystalline, odorless powder, weakly acidic, very slightly soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol.
For adjunctive treatment of: edema due to congestive heart failure; drug-induced edema; centrencephalic epilepsies (petit mal, unlocalized seizures); chronic simple (open-angle) glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, and preoperatively in acute angle-closure glaucoma where delay of surgery is desired in order to lower intraocular pressure. AcetaZOLAMIDE is also indicated for the prevention or amelioration of symptoms associated with acute mountain sickness in climbers attempting rapid ascent and in those who are very susceptible to acute mountain sickness despite gradual ascent.
Published Studies Related to Acetazolamide
Exercise limitation of acetazolamide at altitude (3459 m). 
during early acclimatization to altitude... CONCLUSIONS: In this study group, and despite higher resting Spo2, Az may have
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome benefit from acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. [2011.06.09]
Abstract BACKGROUND: Many patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) are unable or not willing to use CPAP therapy when traveling to the mountains for work or recreation although they risk pronounced hypoxemia and exacerbation of sleep apnea. Since the treatment of OSA at altitude has not been established we tested the hypothesis that acetazolamide improves hypoxemia, sleep and breathing disturbances in otherwise untreated OSA patients at altitude... CONCLUSIONS: In OSA patients discontinuing CPAP during an altitude sojourn, acetazolamide improves oxygenation, breathing disturbances and sleep quality by stimulating ventilation. Therefore, OSA patients may benefit from acetazolamide at altitude if CPAP therapy is not feasible. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00714740.
Effects of acetazolamide and dexamethasone on cerebral hemodynamics in hypoxia. [2011.05]
Previous attempts to detect global cerebral hemodynamic differences between those who develop headache, nausea, and fatigue following rapid exposure to hypoxia [acute mountain sickness (AMS)] and those who remain healthy have been inconclusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of two drugs known to reduce symptoms of AMS to determine if a common cerebral hemodynamic mechanism could explain the prophylactic effect within individuals...
Spironolactone does not prevent acute mountain sickness: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial by SPACE Trial Group (spironolactone and acetazolamide trial in the prevention of acute mountain sickness group). [2011.03]
OBJECTIVES: Over the last 20 years a number of small trials have reported that spironolactone effectively prevents acute mountain sickness (AMS), but to date there have been no large randomized trials investigating the efficacy of spironolactone in prevention of AMS. Hence, a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spironolactone in the prevention of AMS... CONCLUSIONS: Spironolactone (50 mg BID) was ineffective in comparison to acetazolamide (250 mg BID) in the prevention of AMS in partially acclimatized western trekkers ascending to 5000 m in the Nepali Himalaya. Copyright (c) 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled comparison of acetazolamide versus ibuprofen for prophylaxis against high altitude headache: the Headache Evaluation at Altitude Trial (HEAT). [2010.09]
OBJECTIVE: High altitude headache (HAH) is the most common neurological complaint at altitude and the defining component of acute mountain sickness (AMS). However, there is a paucity of literature concerning its prevention. Toward this end, we initiated a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in the Nepal Himalaya designed to compare the effectiveness of ibuprofen and acetazolamide for the prevention of HAH... CONCLUSIONS: Ibuprofen and acetazolamide were similarly effective in preventing HAH. Ibuprofen was similar to acetazolamide in preventing symptoms of AMS, an interesting finding that implies a potentially new approach to prevention of cerebral forms of acute altitude illness. Copyright 2010 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clinical Trials Related to Acetazolamide
Effect of Acetazolamide & Position in CSF Leakage and Collection and Wound Dehiscence [Recruiting]
- Purpose of study : to determine the preventive effect of acetazolamide administration,
prone positioning, and the combination of both following the neurosurgical
interventions in lumbosacral region for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, CSF collection
and wound dehiscence.
- Sample size: 144
- intervention groups:
- Group A: Acetazolamide administration for 10 days
- Group B: prone positioning for 10 days
- Group C: Acetazolamide administration and prone positioning for 10 days
- Group D: no intervention
- Period of study: Autumn 2012 to the end of winter of 2015
Acetazolamide and Spironolactone to Increase Natriuresis in Congestive Heart Failure [Recruiting]
This study has two primary objectives:
1. To compare combination therapy with acetazolamide and low-dose loop diuretics versus
high-dose loop diuretics (standard of care) in patients with acute decompensated heart
failure at high risk for diuretic resistance.
2. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of upfront therapy with spironolactone in
addition to loop diuretic therapy in patients with acute decompensated heart failure at
high risk for diuretic resistance.
Acetazolamide for the Prevention of High Altitude Illness: a Comparison of Dosing [Recruiting]
Acetazolamide, or Diamox, is the standard medical prophylaxis agent for high altitude
illness. The medication is effective in preventing acute mountain sickness (AMS), high
altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Its mechanism is
via inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme which counteracts the respiratory alkalosis
which occurs during ascent to altitude. It facilitates the excretion of bicarbonate in the
urine. As a result, acetazolamide hastens acclimatization and helps prevent high altitude
Current recommended dosing is 125 mg, orally twice daily, started 24 hours prior to
ascending in elevation. Side effects include tingling of the fingers and toes and perioral
numbness which may be erroneously interpreted as stroke symptoms. Since acetazolamide is a
mild diuretic, frequent micturition may occur leading to interruption of daytime activities
as well as broken sleep. These effects can affect safety at high altitude. Acetazolamide is
normally discontinued 2 days after the user has reached their highest elevation or a plateau
A lower dose may be just as effective in preventing high altitude illnesses while preventing
the disconcerting side effects resulting from its use. A smaller dose has not been studied,
however. We will compare the common dose of 125 mg twice daily with a lower dose of 62. 5 mg
A Short Term Open, Randomized Cross-over Trial Exploring the Effect of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibition by Acetazolamide on Sleep Apnea Associated Hypertension and Vascular Dysfunction [Recruiting]
This is a short term open, randomized cross over trial to explore and compare the efficacy
of pharmacological carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
related hypertension. Patients will be randomized to receive Acetazolamide(Diamox«)(ACZ),
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)or CPAP plus ACZ for 2 weeks. Following a 2 week
wash-out period all study participants will receive the alternative treatment regimen. The
total length of the study will be 10 weeks. The effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition on
blood pressure,hemodynamics and sleep apnea will be investigated.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibition alone or in combination with nCPAP will prominently reduce
blood pressure in patients with OSA. Further it is hypothesized that CA inhibition will
induce a direct pharmacological effects on vascular stiffness as evidenced in overnight
non-invasive assessments of vascular stiffness and that this effect will be particularly
strong in patients also responding with a reduction of blood pressure.
Effect of Acetazolamide and Furosemide on Obesity-induced Glomerular Hyperfiltration [Completed]
Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease. The glomerular
hyperfiltration associated with obesity may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity
associated chronic kidney disease. Attenuation of hyperfiltration by pharmacological means
may slow down the development and progression of chronic renal failure. The investigators
have previously shown that acetazolamide, a proximally acting diuretic that activates
tubuloglomerular feedback(TGF) by increasing solute delivery to the Macula DENSA, abates
glomerular hyperfiltration. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that this
decrease in hyperfiltration is specific to acetazolamide and not due to a non specific
diuretic effect. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of furosemide and
acetazolamide on glomerular hemodynamics in subjects with severe obesity.
A randomized double-blind crossover controlled design will be used. Fifteen obese subjects
and ten subjects with normal body weight will participate in the study. Obese subjects will
undergo measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR)(inulin clearance), renal plasma
flow (RPF) (p-aminohippuric acid clearance), filtration fraction, fractional excretion of
lithium (FE LI) and blood pressure, before and after intravenous administration of
furosemide 2 mg. and acetazolamide 5 mg/kg BW. Ten subjects with normal body weight will
undergo measurement of renal function without administration of diuretics.
Reports of Suspected Acetazolamide Side Effects
Intraocular Pressure Increased (9),
Eye Oedema (8),
Vision Blurred (7),
Drug Ineffective (6),
Acute Generalised Exanthematous Pustulosis (3),
Cataract Operation (3),
Visual Acuity Reduced (2),
Urinary Bladder Haemorrhage (2), more >>
Page last updated: 2015-08-10