WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions
Presumably because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including ACEON) may be subject to a variety of adverse events, some of them serious. Black patients receiving ACE inhibitors have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to nonblacks.
Head and Neck Angioedema: Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, or larynx has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including ACEON (0.1% of patients treated with ACEON in U.S. clinical trials). Angioedema associated with involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx may be fatal. In such cases, discontinue ACEON treatment immediately and observe until the swelling disappears. When involvement of the tongue, glottis, or larynx appears likely to cause airway obstruction, administer appropriate therapy, such as subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1000 (0.3 to 0.5 mL), promptly.
Intestinal Angioedema: Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.
ACEON can cause symptomatic hypotension. ACEON has been associated with hypotension in 0.3% of uncomplicated hypertensive patients in U.S. placebo-controlled trials. Symptoms related to orthostatic hypotension were reported in another 0.8% of patients.
Symptomatic hypotension is most likely to occur in patients who have been volume or salt-depleted as a result of prolonged diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhea or vomiting [see Dosage and Administration ].
ACE inhibitors may cause excessive hypotension, and may be associated with oliguria or azotemia, and rarely with acute renal failure and death. In patients with ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease, an excessive fall in blood pressure could result in a myocardial infarction or a cerebrovascular accident.
In patients at risk of excessive hypotension, ACEON therapy should be started under very close medical supervision. Patients should be followed closely for the first two weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of ACEON and/or diuretic is increased.
If excessive hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed immediately in a supine position and, if necessary, treated with an intravenous infusion of physiological saline. ACEON treatment can usually be continued following restoration of volume and blood pressure.
ACE inhibitors have been associated with agranulocytosis and bone marrow depression, most frequently in patients with renal impairment, especially patients with a collagen vascular disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma.
Pregnancy Category D
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected discontinue ACEON as soon as possible [see Use in Specific Populations].
Impaired Renal Function
As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. Renal function should be monitored periodically in patients receiving ACEON [see Dosage and Administration ], [see Drug Interactions].
In patients with severe congestive heart failure, where renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with ACE inhibitors, including ACEON, may be associated with oliguria, progressive azotemia, and, rarely, acute renal failure and death.
In hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine may occur; usually reversible upon discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. In such patients, renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of therapy.
Some ACEON-treated patients have developed minor and transient increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine especially in those concomitantly treated with a diuretic.
Elevations of serum potassium have been observed in some patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including ACEON. Most cases were isolated single values that did not appear clinically relevant and were rarely a cause for withdrawal. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus and the concomitant use of agents such as potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes [see Drug Interactions ].
Serum potassium should be monitored periodically in patients receiving ACEON.
Presumably because of the inhibition of the degradation of endogenous bradykinin, persistent nonproductive cough has been reported with all ACE inhibitors, generally resolving after discontinuation of therapy. Consider ACE inhibitor-induced cough in the differential diagnosis of cough.
Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and sometimes death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up.
In patients undergoing surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, ACEON may block angiotensin II formation that would otherwise occur secondary to compensatory renin release. Hypotension attributable to this mechanism can be corrected by volume expansion.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category D [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue ACEON as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus.
In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue ACEON, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to ACEON for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia [see Use in Specific Populations ].
Radioactivity was detectable in fetuses after administration of 14C-perindopril to pregnant rats.
Milk of lactating rats contained radioactivity following administration of 14C-perindopril. It is not known whether perindopril is secreted in human milk. Because many drugs are secreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ACEON is given to nursing mothers.
Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to ACEON:
If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Perindopril, which crosses the placenta, can theoretically be removed from the neonatal circulation by these means, but limited experience has not shown that such removal is central to the treatment of these infants.
Safety and effectiveness of ACEON in pediatric patients have not been established.
The mean blood pressure effect of perindopril was somewhat smaller in patients over 60 than in younger patients, although the difference was not significant. Plasma concentrations of both perindopril and perindoprilat were increased in elderly patients compared to concentrations in younger patients. No adverse effects were clearly increased in older patients with the exception of dizziness and possibly rash.
Start at a low dose and titrate slowly as needed. Monitor for dizziness because of potential for falls.
Experience with ACEON in elderly patients at daily doses exceeding 8 mg is limited.
Dosage adjustment may be necessary in renally impaired patients [see Dosage and Administration and Clinical Pharmacology].
The bioavailability of perindoprilat is increased in patients with impaired hepatic function [see Clinical Pharmacology].