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Active ingredient: Tramadol - Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Drug Category

  • Narcotics
  • Analgesics

Dosage Forms

  • Tablet

Brands / Synonyms

Crispin; Ralivia ER; Ralivia Flashtab; Ryzolt; Tramadol; Tramadol and Acetaminophen; Tramadol HCl; Tramadol HCl BP/EP; Tramadol hydrochloride; Tramadolum [Inn-Latin]; Tramal; Tramodol Hcl; Ultracet; Ultram; Ultram ER; Zydol

Indications

Indicated in the treatment of moderate to severe pain.

Pharmacology

Tramadol, a centrally-acting analgesic, exists as a racemic mixture of the trans isomer, with important differences in binding, activity, and metabolism associated with the two enantiomers. Although Tramadol is a synthetic analog of codeine, it has a significantly lower affinity for opioid receptors than codeine. Tramadol is used to treat postoperative, dental, cancer, and acute musculosketetal pain and as an adjuvant to NSAID therapy in patients with osteoarthritis.

Mechanism of Action

Tramadol and its O-desmethyl metabolite (M1) are selective, weak OP3-receptor agonists. Opiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as both positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is inhibited. The analgesic properties of Tramadol can be attributed to norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake blockade in the CNS, which inhibits pain transmission in the spinal cord. The (+) enantiomer has higher affinity for the OP3 receptor and preferentially inhibits serotonin uptake and enhances serotonin release. The (-) enantiomer preferentially inhibits norepinephrine reuptake by stimulating alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors.

Absorption

Racemic tramadol is rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral administration. The mean absolute bioavailability of a 100 mg oral dose is approximately 75%.The mean peak plasma concentration of racemic tramadol and M1 occurs at two and three hours, respectively, after administration in healthy adults.

Toxicity

LD50=350mg/kg (orally in mice)

Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism

The major metabolic pathways appear to be N- and O- demethylation and glucuronidation or sulfation in the liver. One metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol, denoted M1) is pharmacologically active in animal models.

Contraindications

ULTRAM should not be administered to patients who have previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to tramadol, any other component of this product or opioids. ULTRAM is contraindicated in any situation where opioids are contraindicated, including acute intoxication with any of the following: alcohol, hypnotics, narcotics, centrally acting analgesics, opioids or psychotropic drugs. ULTRAM may worsen central nervous system and respiratory depression in these patients.

Drug Interactions

In vitro studies indicate that tramadol is unlikely to inhibit the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of other drugs when tramadol is administered concomitantly at therapeutic doses. Tramadol does not appear to induce its own metabolism in humans, since observed maximal plasma concentrations after multiple oral doses are higher than expected based on single-dose data. Tramadol is a mild inducer of selected drug metabolism pathways measured in animals.

Use With Carbamazepine

Patients taking carbamazepine may have a significantly reduced analgesic effect of ULTRAM. Because carbamazepine increases tramadol metabolism and because of the seizure risk associated with tramadol, concomitant administration of ULTRAM and carbamazepine is not recommended.

Use With Quinidine

Tramadol is metabolized to M1 by CYP2D6. Quinidine is a selective inhibitor of that isoenzyme, so that concomitant administration of quinidine and ULTRAM results in increased concentrations of tramadol and reduced concentrations of M1.The clinical consequences of these findings are unknown. In vitro drug interaction studies in human liver microsomes indicate that tramadol has no effect on quinidine metabolism.

Use With Inhibitors of CYP2D6

In vitro drug interaction studies in human liver microsomes indicate that concomitant administration with inhibitors of CYP2D6 such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, and amitriptyline could result in some inhibition of the metabolism of tramadol.

Use With Cimetidine

Concomitant administration of ULTRAM with cimetidine does not result in clinically significant changes in tramadol pharmacokinetics. Therefore, no alteration of the ULTRAM dosage regimen is recommended.

Use With MAO Inhibitors

Interactions with MAO Inhibitors, due to interference with detoxification mechanisms, have been reported for some centrally acting drugs.

Use With Digoxin and Warfarin

Post-marketing surveillance has revealed rare reports of digoxin toxicity and alteration of warfarin effect, including elevation of prothrombin times.

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