Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Anti-bacterial Agents
Brands / Synonyms
Amikin; G-Mycin; Garamycin; Jenamicin; Kantrex; Nebcin; Netromycin; Streptomycin; Streptomycin a Sulfate; Streptomycin Sesquisulfate Hydrate; Streptomycin Sulfate; Streptomycin Sulphate; Streptomycin, Sulfate Salt
For the treatment of Tuberculosis
Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter. In addition, some mycobacteria, including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, are susceptible to aminoglycosides. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria can also be treated with aminoglycosides, but other types of antibiotics are more potent and less damaging to the host. In the past the aminoglycosides have been used in conjunction with penicillin-related antibiotics in streptococcal infections for their synergistic effects, particularly in endocarditis. Aminoglycosides are mostly ineffective against anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Mechanism of Action
Aminoglycosides like Streptomycin "irreversibly" bind to specific 30S-subunit proteins and 16S rRNA. Specifically Streptomycin binds to four nucleotides of 16S rRNA and a single amino acid of protein S12. This interferes with decoding site in the vicinity of nucleotide 1400 in 16S rRNA of 30S subunit. This region interacts with the wobble base in the anticodon of tRNA. This leads to interference with the initiation complex, misreading of mRNA so incorrect amino acids are inserted into the polypeptide leading to nonfunctional or toxic peptides and the breakup of polysomes into nonfunctional monosomes.
LD50=430 mg/kg (Orally in rats with Streptomycin Sulfate); Side effect include nausea, vomiting, and vertigo, paresthesia of face, rash, fever, urticaria, angioneurotic edema, and eosinophilia.
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism