Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Free Radical Scavengers
- Vasodilator Agents
- Radiation-Protective Agents
- Hematologic Agents
- Hemorrheologic Agents
- Tablet (extended-release)
Brands / Synonyms
Azupentat; Dimethyloxohexylxanthine; Durapental; Oxpentifylline; Pentoxifyllin; Pentoxil; Pentoxiphyllium; Pentoxyfylline; PENTOXYPHYLINE; Pentoxyphylline; Rentylin; Torental; Trental; Vazofirin
For the treatment of patients with intermittent lameness or immobility arising from chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs.
Pentoxifylline, a synthetic dimethylxanthine derivative structurally related to theophylline and caffeine, is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases and in the management of cerebrovascular insufficiency, sickle cell disease, and diabetic neuropathy.
Mechanism of Action
Pentoxifylline inhibits erythrocyte phosphodiesterase, resulting in an increase in erythrocyte cAMP activity. Subsequently, the erythrocyte membrane becomes more resistant to deformity. Along with erythrocyte activity, pentoxifylline also decreases blood viscosity by reducing plasma fibrinogen concentrations and increasing fibrinolytic activity.
LD50=1385 mg/kg(orally in mice)
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
No information provided.
Although a causal relationship has not been established, there have been reports of bleeding and/or prolonged
prothrombin time in patients treated with TRENTAL with and without anticoagulants or platelet aggregation inhibitors.
Patients on Warfarin should have more frequent monitoring of prothrombin times, while patients with other risk
factors complicated by hemorrhage (e.g., recent surgery, peptic ulceration) should have periodic examinations for
bleeding including hematocrit and/or hemoglobin. Concomitant administration of TRENTAL and theophylline-containing
drugs leads to increased theophylline levels and theophylline toxicity in some individuals. Such patients should be
closely monitored for signs of toxicity and have their theophylline dosage adjusted as necessary. TRENTAL has been
used concurrently with antihypertensive drugs, beta blockers, digitalis, diuretics, antidiabetic agents, and
antiarrhythmics, without observed problems. Small decreases in blood pressure have been observed in some patients
treated with TRENTAL; periodic systemic blood pressure monitoring is recommended for patients receiving concomitant
antihypertensive therapy. If indicated, dosage of the antihypertensive agents should be reduced.