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Active ingredient: Nitrofurantoin - Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Drug Category

  • Anti-Infectives
  • Anti-Infectives

Dosage Forms

  • Tablet

Brands / Synonyms

Alfuran; Apo-Nitrofurantoin; Benkfuran; Berkfurin; Ceduran; Chemiofuran; Cistofuran; Cyantin; Cystit; Dantafur; Fua Med; Fuamed; Fur-Ren; Furabid; Furachel; Furadantin; Furadantin Retard; Furadantina MC; Furadantine; Furadantine Mc; Furadantine-Mc; Furadantoin; Furadoin; Furadoine; Furadonin; Furadonine; Furadontin; Furalan; Furaloid; Furan; Furanite; Furantoin; Furantoina; Furatoin; Furedan; Furina; Furobactina; Furophen T; Furophen T-Caps; Gerofuran; It-Uran; Ituran; Ivadantin; Macpac; Macrobid; Macrodantin; Macrodantina; Macrofuran; Macrofurin; N-Toin; Nierofu; Nifurantin; Nitoin; Nitrex; Nitrofan; Nitrofur-C; Nitrofuradantin; Nitrofurantion Macrocrystals; Nitrofurantoin; Novo-Furantoin; Novofuran; Orafuran; Parfuran; Phenurin; Ro-Antoin; Siraliden; Trantoin; Uerineks; Upiol; Urantoin; Urizept; Uro-Selz; Uro-Tablinen; Urodin; Urofuran; Urofurin; Urolisa; Urolong; USAF EA-2; Uvaleral; Welfurin; Zoofurin


For the treatment of infection of the urinary tract


Nitrofurantoin, a nitrofuran antibacterial agent, is available in microcrystalline and macrocrystalline form to treat urinary tract infections caused by many gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria.

Mechanism of Action

Nitrofurantoin inhibits bacterial acetyl-coenzyme A, interfering with the organism's carbohydrate metabolism. The drug also can disrupt bacterial cell wall formation.


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Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism

Not Available


Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.

Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38-42 weeks gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under one month of age.

Macrobid is also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to nitrofurantoin.

Drug Interactions

Antacids containing magnesium trisilicate, when administered concomitantly with nitrofurantoin, reduce both the rate and extent of absorption. The mechanism for this interaction probably is adsorption of nitrofurantoin onto the surface of magnesium trisilicate.

Uricosuric drugs, such as probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, can inhibit renal tubular secretion of nitrofurantoin. The resulting increase in nitrofurantoin serum levels may increase toxicity, and the decreased urinary levels could lessen its efficacy as a urinary tract antibacterial.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

As a result of the presence of nitrofurantoin, a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur. This has been observed with Benedictís and Fehlingís solutions but not with the glucose enzymatic test.

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