Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
Brands / Synonyms
Alfuran; Apo-Nitrofurantoin; Benkfuran; Berkfurin; Ceduran; Chemiofuran; Cistofuran; Cyantin; Cystit; Dantafur; Fua Med; Fuamed; Fur-Ren; Furabid; Furachel; Furadantin; Furadantin Retard; Furadantina MC; Furadantine; Furadantine Mc; Furadantine-Mc; Furadantoin; Furadoin; Furadoine; Furadonin; Furadonine; Furadontin; Furalan; Furaloid; Furan; Furanite; Furantoin; Furantoina; Furatoin; Furedan; Furina; Furobactina; Furophen T; Furophen T-Caps; Gerofuran; It-Uran; Ituran; Ivadantin; Macpac; Macrobid; Macrodantin; Macrodantina; Macrofuran; Macrofurin; N-Toin; Nierofu; Nifurantin; Nitoin; Nitrex; Nitrofan; Nitrofur-C; Nitrofuradantin; Nitrofurantoin; Novo-Furantoin; Novofuran; Orafuran; Parfuran; Phenurin; Ro-Antoin; Siraliden; Trantoin; Uerineks; Upiol; Urantoin; Urizept; Uro-Selz; Uro-Tablinen; Urodin; Urofuran; Urofurin; Urolisa; Urolong; USAF EA-2; Uvaleral; Welfurin; Zoofurin
For the treatment of infection of the urinary tract
Nitrofurantoin, a nitrofuran antibacterial agent, is available in microcrystalline and macrocrystalline form to treat urinary tract infections caused by many gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria.
Mechanism of Action
Nitrofurantoin inhibits bacterial acetyl-coenzyme A, interfering with the organism's carbohydrate metabolism. The drug also can disrupt bacterial cell wall formation.
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per
minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient
carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.
Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione
instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38-42 weeks gestation), during labor and
delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under
one month of age.
Macrobid is also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to
Antacids containing magnesium trisilicate, when administered concomitantly with nitrofurantoin, reduce
both the rate and extent of absorption. The mechanism for this interaction probably is adsorption of nitrofurantoin
onto the surface of magnesium trisilicate.
Uricosuric drugs, such as probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, can inhibit renal tubular secretion of
nitrofurantoin. The resulting increase in nitrofurantoin serum levels may increase toxicity, and the decreased
urinary levels could lessen its efficacy as a urinary tract antibacterial.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
As a result of the presence of nitrofurantoin, a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may
occur. This has been observed with Benedictís and Fehlingís solutions but not with the glucose