Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Antiparkinson Agents
- Muscarinic antagonists
Brands / Synonyms
Atosil; Contalyl; Methixart; Methixen; Methixen [German]; Methixene; Methixene hydrochloride; Metisene [DCIT]; Metixene hydrochloride; Metixeno [INN-Spanish]; Metixenum [INN-Latin]; Tremaril; Tremaril hydrochloride; Tremonil; Trest
Used for the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism.
Metixene is a tertiary antimuscarinic with actions similar to those of atropine; it also has antihistaminic and direct antispasmodic properties. It is used for the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism, including the alleviation of the extrapyramidal syndrome induced by other drugs such as phenothiazines, but, like other antimuscarinics, it is of no value against tardive dyskinesias. Metixene has been discontinued.
Mechanism of Action
Parkinsonism is thought to result from an imbalance between the excitatory (cholinergic) and inhibitory (dopaminergic) systems in the corpus striatum. The mechanism of action of centrally active anticholinergic drugs such as metixene is considered to relate to competitive antagonism of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptors in the corpus striatum, which then restores the balance.
Absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration, however the extent of absorption is not known.
Signs of overdose include dilated and sluggish pupils, warm, dry skin, facial flushing, decreased secretions of the mouth, pharynx, nose, and bronchi, foul-smelling breath, elevated temperature, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, decreased bowel sounds, urinary retention, delirium, disorientation, anxiety, hallucinations, illusions, confusion, incoherence, agitation, hyperactivity, ataxia, loss of memory, paranoia, combativeness, and seizures.
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
Hepatic. Metabolism occurs via sulfoxydation and N-demethylation.