Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
Brands / Synonyms
For the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in the adult population.
Chronic idiopathic constipation is generally defined by infrequent or difficult passage of stool. The signs and symptoms associated with chronic idiopathic constipation (i.e., abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, straining, and hard or lumpy stools) may be the result of abnormal colonic motility that can delay the transit of intestinal contents and impede the evacuation of rectal contents. One approach to the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation is the secretion of fluid into the abdominal lumen through the activation of chloride channels in the apical membrane of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Lubiprostone is a locally acting chloride channel activator that enhances a chloride-rich intestinal fluid secretion without altering sodium and potassium concentrations in the serum.
Mechanism of Action
Lubiprostone acts by specifically activating ClC-2, which is a normal constituent of the apical membrane of the human intestine, in a protein kinase A–independent fashion. By increasing intestinal fluid secretion, lubiprostone increases motility in the intestine, thereby increasing the passage of stool and alleviating symptoms associated with chronic idiopathic constipation. Patch clamp cell studies in human cell lines have indicated that the majority of the beneficial biological activity of lubiprostone and its metabolites is observed only on the apical (luminal) portion of the gastrointestinal epithelium.
Lubiprostone has low systemic availability following oral administration and concentrations of lubiprostone in plasma are below the level of quantitation (10 pg/mL).
In a definitive Phase 1 cardiac repolarization study, 51 patients were administered a single oral dose of 144 mcg of lubiprostone, which is 6 times the normal single administration dose. Thirty-nine (39) of the 51 patients experienced an adverse event. The adverse events reported in >1% of this group included the following: nausea (45.1%), vomiting (27.5%), diarrhea (25.5%), dizziness (17.6%), loose or watery stools (13.7%), headache (11.8%), retching (7.8%), abdominal pain (5.9%), flushing or hot flush (5.9%), dyspnea (3.9%), pallor (3.9%), stomach discomfort (3.9%), syncope (3.9%), upper abdominal pain (2.0%), anorexia (2.0%), asthenia (2.0%), chest discomfort (2.0%), dry mouth (2.0%), hyperhidrosis (2.0%), skin irritation (2.0%) and vasovagal episode (2.0%).
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
The results of both human and animal studies indicate that lubiprostone is rapidly and extensively metabolized by 15-position reduction, α-chain β-oxidation, and ω-chain ω-oxidation. These biotransformations are not mediated by the hepatic cytochrome P450 system but rather appear to be mediated by the ubiquitously expressed carbonyl reductase. M3, a metabolite of lubiprostone in both humans and animals is formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group at the 15-hydroxy moiety that consists of both α-hydroxy and β-hydroxy epimers. M3 makes up less than 10% of the dose of radiolabeled lubiprostone.
AMITIZA™ is contraindicated in those patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug or any of its excipients, and in patients with a history of mechanical gastrointestinal obstruction.
Based upon the results of in vitro human microsome studies, there is low likelihood of drug–drug interactions. In vitro studies using human liver microsomes indicate that cytochrome P450 isoenzymes are not involved in the metabolism of lubiprostone. Further in vitro studies indicate microsomal carbonyl reductase may be involved in the extensive biotransformation of lubiprostone to M3. Additionally, in vitro studies in human liver microsomes demonstrate that lubiprostone does not inhibit cytochrome P450 isoforms 3A4, 2D6, 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, or 2E1, and in vitro studies in primary cultures of human hepatocytes show no induction of the cytochrome P450 isoforms 1A2, 2B6, 2C9 and 3A4. No additional drug–drug interaction studies have been performed. Based on the available information, no protein binding–mediated drug interactions of clinical significance are anticipated.