Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Anti-bacterial Agents
Brands / Synonyms
Cravit; Cravit Ophthalmic; Elequine; Floxel; Iquix; Leroxacin; Lesacin; Levaquin; Levaquin Leva-Pak; Levokacin; Levox; Levoxacin; Mosardal; Nofaxin; Quixin; Reskuin; Tavanic; Volequin
For the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis caused by susceptible strains of the following organisms: Corynebacterium species, Staphylococus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus (Groups C/F/G), Viridans group streptococci, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Haemophilus influenzae, Serratia marcescens.
Levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antiinfective, is the optically active L-isomer of ofloxacin. Levofloxacin is used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis, sinusitis, chronic bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia and pneumonia caused by penicillin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, skin and skin structure infections, complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis.
Mechanism of Action
Levofloxacin inhibits bacterial type II topoisomerases, topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase. Levofloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, inhibits the A subunits of DNA gyrase, two subunits encoded by the gyrA gene. This results in strand breakage on a bacterial chromosome, supercoiling, and resealing; DNA replication and transcription is inhibited.
Absorption of ofloxacin after single or multiple doses of 200 to 400 mg is predictable, and the amount of drug absorbed increases proportionately with the dose.
Side effects include disorientation, dizziness, drowsiness, hot and cold flashes, nausea, slurring of speech, swelling and numbness in the face
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
Levofloxacin solution is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to levofloxacin, to other quinolones, or to any of the components in this medication.
Specific drug interaction studies have not been conducted with Levofloxacin. However, the systemic administration of some quinolones has been shown to elevate plasma concentrations of theophylline, interfere with the metabolism of caffeine, and enhance the effects of the oral anticoagulant warfarin and its derivatives, and has been associated with transient elevations in serum creatinine in patients receiving systemic cyclosporine concomitantly.