Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Capsules (5 and 10 mg, for oral administration)
Brands / Synonyms
CC-5013; CDC 501; Revimid
For the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anemia due to low- or intermediate- risk myelodysplastic syndromes associated with a deletion 5q cytogenetic abnormality with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities.
Lenalidomide, a thalidomide analogue, is an immunomodulatory agent possessing immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic properties. Lenalidomide inhibits the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lenalidomide inhibits cell proliferation with varying effectiveness (IC50s) in some but not all cell lines. Lenalidomide is effective in inhibiting growth of Namalwa cells (a human B cell lymphoma cell line with a deletion of one chromosome 5) but is much less effective in inhibiting growth of KG-1 cells (human myeloblastic cell line, also with a deletion of one chromosome 5) and other cell lines without chromosome 5 deletions.
Mechanism of Action
The mechanism of action of lenalidomide remains to be fully characterized, however it has been demonstrated that lenalidomide inhibits the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but not COX-1, in vitro.
Rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with maximum plasma concentrations occurring between 0.625 and 1.5 hours post-dose. Co-administration with food does not alter the extent of absorption (AUC) but does reduce the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) by 36%. The pharmacokinetic disposition of lenalidomide is linear.
The most frequently reported adverse events were related to blood and lymphatic system disorders, skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and general disorders and administrative site conditions.
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
The metabolic profile of lenalidomide in humans has not been studied. In healthy volunteers, approximately two-thirds of lenalidomide is eliminated unchanged through urinary excretion. The process exceeds the glomerular filtration rate and therefore is partially or entirely active.
Pregnancy: Category X
Due to its structural similarities to thalidomide, a known human teratogen, lenalidomide is contraindicated in pregnant women and women capable of becoming pregnant. When there is no alternative, females of childbearing potential may be treated with lenalidomide provided adequate precautions are taken to avoid pregnancy. Females must commit either to abstain continuously from heterosexual sexual intercourse or to use two methods of reliable birth control, including at least one highly effective method (e.g., IUD, hormonal contraception, tubal ligation, or partner’s vasectomy) and one additional effective method (e.g., latex condom, diaphragm, or cervical cap), beginning 4 weeks prior to initiating treatment with REVLIMID® (lenalidomide), during therapy with REVLIMID® (lenalidomide), during therapy delay, and continuing for 4 weeks following discontinuation of REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) therapy. If hormonal or IUD contraception is medically contraindicated, two other effective or highly effective methods may be used.
Females of childbearing potential being treated with REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) should have pregnancy testing (sensitivity of at least 50 mIU/mL). The first test should be performed within 10-14 days and the second test within 24 hours prior to beginning REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) therapy and then weekly during the first month of REVLIMID® (lenalidomide), then monthly thereafter in women with regular menstrual cycles or every 2 weeks in women with irregular menstrual cycles. Pregnancy testing and counseling should be performed if a patient misses her period or if there is any abnormality in menstrual bleeding. If pregnancy occurs, REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) must be immediately discontinued. Under these conditions, the patient should be referred to an obstetrician/gynecologist experienced in reproductive toxicity for further evaluation and counseling.
REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) is contraindicated in any patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug or its components.
Results from human in vitro metabolism studies and nonclinical studies show that REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) is neither metabolized by nor inhibits or induces the cytochrome P450 pathway suggesting that lenalidomide is not likely to cause or be subject to P450-based metabolic drug interactions in man.
Co-administration of multiple doses of 10 mg of lenalidomide had no effect on the single dose pharmacokinetics of R- and S- warfarin. Co-administration of single 25-mg dose warfarin had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of total lenalidomide. Expected changes in laboratory assessments of PT and INR were observed after warfarin administration, but these changes were not affected by concomitant lenalidomide administration.