Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists
- Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
- Antihypertensive Agents
Brands / Synonyms
Albetol; Ibidomide; La.beta.lol hydrochloride; Labetalol; Labetalol HCL; Labetalol hydrochloride; Labetalolum [INN-Latin]; Labetolol; Normodyne; Presdate; Trandate; Trandate
For the management of hypertension.
Labetalol is an alpha-1 and beta adrenergic blocker used to treat high blood pressure. It works by blocking these adrenergic receptors, which slows sinus heart rate, decreases peripheral vascular resistance, and decreases cardiac output.
Mechanism of Action
Labetalol has two asymmetric centers and therefore, exists as a molecular complex of two diastereoisomeric pairs. Dilevalol, the R,R' stereoisomer, makes up 25% of racemic labetalol. Labetalol HCl combines both selective, competitive, alpha-1-adrenergic blocking and nonselective, competitive, beta-adrenergic blocking activity in a single substance. In man, the ratios of alpha- to beta- blockade have been estimated to be approximately 1:3 and 1:7 following oral and intravenous (IV) administration, respectively. Beta-2-agonist activity has been demonstrated in animals with minimal beta-1-agonist (ISA) activity detected. In animals, at doses greater than those required for alpha- or beta- adrenergic blockade, a membrane stabilizing effect has been demonstrated.
Completely absorbed (100%) from the gastrointestinal tract with peak plasma levels occurring 1 to 2 hours after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability of labetalol is increased when administered with food.
LD50 = 66 mg/kg (Rat, IV). Side effects or adverse reactions include dizziness when standing up, very low blood pressure, severely slow heartbeat, weakness, diminished sexual function, fatigue
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
Primarily hepatic, undergoes significant first pass metabolism
TRANDATE Tablets are contraindicated in bronchial asthma, overt cardiac failure, greater-than-first-degree heart
block, cardiogenic shock, severe bradycardia, other conditions associated with severe and prolonged hypotension, and
in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any component of the product.
Beta-blockers, even those with apparent cardioselectivity, should not be used in patients with a history of
obstructive airway disease, including asthma.
In one survey, 2.3% of patients taking labetalol HCl in combination with tricyclic antidepressants experienced
tremor, as compared to 0.7% reported to occur with labetalol HCl alone. The contribution of each of the treatments to
this adverse reaction is unknown but the possibility of a drug interaction cannot be excluded.
Drugs possessing beta-blocking properties can blunt the bronchodilator effect of beta-receptor agonist drugs in
patients with bronchospasm; therefore, doses greater than the normal antiasthmatic dose of beta-agonist
bronchodilator drugs may be required.
Cimetidine has been shown to increase the bioavailability of labetalol HCl. Since this could be explained either
by enhanced absorption or by an alteration of hepatic metabolism of labetalol HCl, special care should be used in
establishing the dose required for blood pressure control in such patients.
Synergism has been shown between halothane anesthesia and intravenously administered labetalol HCl. During
controlled hypotensive anesthesia using labetalol HCl in association with halothane, high concentrations (3% or
above) of halothane should not be used because the degree of hypotension will be increased and because of the
possibility of a large reduction in cardiac output and an increase in central venous pressure. The anesthesiologist
should be informed when a patient is receiving labetalol HCl.
Labetalol HCl blunts the reflex tachycardia produced by nitroglycerin without preventing its hypotensive effect.
If labetalol HCl is used with nitroglycerin in patients with angina pectoris, additional antihypertensive effects may
Care should be taken if labetalol is used concomitantly with calcium antagonists of the verapamil type.
Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction
While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may
be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be
unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reaction.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
The presence of labetalol metabolites in the urine may result in falsely elevated levels of urinary
catecholamines, metanephrine, normetanephrine and vanillylmandelic acid when measured by fluorimetric or photometric
methods. In screening patients suspected of having a pheochromocytoma and being treated with labetalol HCl, a
specific method, such as a high performance liquid chromatographic assay with solid phase extraction (e.g., J
Chromatogr 385:241,1987) should be employed in determining levels of catecholamines.
Labetalol HCl has also been reported to produce a false positive test for amphetamine when screening urine for the
presence of drugs using the commercially available assay methods Toxi-Lab A®
(thin-layer chromatographic assay) and Emit-d.a.u.®
(radioenzymatic assay). When patients being treated with labetalol have a positive urine test for amphetamine using
these techniques confirmation should be made by using more specific methods such as a gas chromatographic-mass