Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Antiviral Agents
- Immunomodulatory Agents
- Solution (Subcutaneous Injection)
- Solution (Intra- or Peri-lesional Injection)
Brands / Synonyms
Avonex; Avonex (Biogen Inc)
; Fibroblast interferon; IFN-beta; Interferon beta precursor; Rebif
Human interferon beta (166 residues), glycosylated, MW=22.5kD. It is produced by mammalian cells (Chinese Hamster Ovary cells) into which the human interferon beta gene has been introduced. The amino acid sequence of Avonex is identical to that of natural human interferon beta.
For treatment of relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis, also for condyloma acuminatum
Interferon beta upregulates the expression of MHC I proteins, allowing for increased presentation of peptides derived from viral antigens. This enhances the activation of CD8+ T cells that are the precursors for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and makes the macrophage a better target for CTL-mediated killing. Type I interferons also induce the synthesis of several key antiviral mediators including 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (2'-5' A synthetase), beta-2 microglobulin and neopterin.
Mechanism of Action
Interferon beta binds to type I interferon receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2c) which, upon dimerization, activate two Jak (Janus kinase) tyrosine kinases (Jak1 and Tyk2). These transphosphorylate themselves and phosphorylate the receptors. The phosphorylated INFAR receptors then bind to Stat1 and Stat2 (signal transducers and activators of transcription) which dimerize and activate multiple (~100) immunomodulatory and antiviral proteins. Interferon beta binds more stably to type I interferon receptors than interferon alpha.
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism