Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Antineoplastic Agents
- Antiviral Agents
- Immunomodulatory Agents
Brands / Synonyms
Alferon (Interferon Sciences Inc.)
; Alferon N Injection; Interferon alpha-2 precursor; Interferon alpha-A; LeIF A
Purified, natural (n is for natural) human interferon alpha proteins (consists of 3 forms or polymorphisms including 2a, 2b and 2c). 166 residues, some are glycosylated (MW range from 16 kD to 27 kD)
For the treatment of hairy cell leukemia, malignant melanoma, AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, refractory or recurring external condylomata acuminata in patients 18 years of age or older, laryngeal papillomatosis in children and some types of hepatitis
Interferon alfa-n3 upregulates the expression of MHC I proteins, allowing for increased presentation of peptides derived from viral antigens. This enhances the activation of CD8+ T cells that are the precursors for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and makes the macrophage a better target for CTL-mediated killing. Interferon alpha also induce the synthesis of several key antiviral mediators, including 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (2'-5' A synthetase), beta-2 microglobulin, neopterin and protein kinase R.
Mechanism of Action
Interferon alpha binds to type I interferon receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2c) which, upon dimerization, activate two Jak (Janus kinase) tyrosine kinases (Jak1 and Tyk2). These transphosphorylate themselves and phosphorylate the receptors. The phosphorylated INFAR receptors then bind to Stat1 and Stat2 (signal transducers and activators of transcription) which dimerize and activate multiple (~100) immunomodulatory and antiviral proteins. Interferon alpha binds less stably to type I interferon receptors than interferon beta.
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism