Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Antiarrhythmic Agents
- Bronchodilator Agents
- Oral drops
Brands / Synonyms
Anaspaz; Cystospaz; Darcalma; Daturine; Duboisine; Duretter; Egacene; Egazil; Gastrosed; Hyocyamine; Hyoscyamine; L-Atropine; L-Hyopscyamine; L-Hyoscamine; L-Hyoscyamine; L-Hyoscyamine Free Base; L-Tropine Tropate; Levbid; Levsin; Levsinex; OIN; PB Hyos; Peptard; Phosenamine; Scopolia Extract
; Urogesic Blue
For treatment of bladder spasms, peptic ulcer disease, diverticulitis, colic, irritable bowel syndrome, cystitis, and pancreatitis. Also used to treat certain heart conditions, to control the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and rhinitis.
L-Hyoscyamine, the active optical isomer of atropine (dl-hyoscyamine), is a tertiary amine anticholinergic gastrointestinal agent.
Mechanism of Action
Hyoscyamine competes favorably with acetylcholine for binding at muscarinic receptors in the salivary, bronchial, and sweat glands as well as in the eye, heart, and gastrointestinal tract. The actions of hyoscyamine result in a reduction in salivary, bronchial, gastric and sweat gland secretions, mydriasis, cycloplegia, change in heart rate, contraction of the bladder detrusor muscle and of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and decreased gastrointestinal motility.
Absorbed totally and completely by sublingual administration as well as oral administration.
Symptoms of overdose include headache, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, dilated pupils, hot dry skin, dizziness, dryness of the mouth, difficulty in swallowing, and CNS stimulation. LD50=mg/kg(orally in rat)
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
Glaucoma; obstructive uropathy (for example, bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy); obstructive
disease of the gastrointestinal tract (as in achalasia, pyloroduodenal stenosis); paralytic ileus, intestinal atony
of elderly or debilitated patients; unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage; severe ulcerative colitis;
toxic egacolon complicating ulcerative colitis; myasthenia gravis.
Additive adverse effects resulting from cholinergic blockade may occur when LEVSIN is administered concomitantly
with other antimuscarinics, amantadine, haloperidol, phenothiazines, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, tricyclic
antidepressants or some antihistamines. Antacids may interfere with the absorption of LEVSIN. Administer LEVSIN
before meals; antacids after meals.