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Active ingredient: Fomepizole - Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Drug Category

  • Antidotes

Dosage Forms

  • Liquid

Brands / Synonyms

Antizol; Fomepizol [INN-Spanish]; Fomepizole [USAN:INN]; Fomepizolum [INN-Latin]

Indications

Antizol is indicated as an antidote for ethylene glycol (such as antifreeze) or methanol poisoning, or for use in suspected ethylene glycol or methanol ingestion, either alone or in combination with hemodialysis

Pharmacology

Fomepizole is a competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps in the metabolism of ethylene glycol and methanol to their toxic metabolites. Ethylene glycol is first metabolized to glycoaldehyde which then undergoes further oxidation to glycolate, glyoxylate, and oxalate. It is glycolate and oxalate that are primarily responsible for the metabolic acidosis and renal damage that are seen in ethylene glycol poisoning. {01}{03} Methanol is first metabolized to formaldehyde and then undergoes subsequent oxidation via formaldehyde dehydrogenase to become formic acid. It is formic acid that is primarily responsible for the metabolic acidosis and visual disturbances that are associated with methanol poisoning.

Mechanism of Action

Antizol (fomepizole) is a competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase. Alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Alcohol dehydrogenase also catalyzes the initial steps in the metabolism of ethylene glycol and methanol to their toxic metabolites.

Absorption

Rapid and complete

Toxicity

Headache, nausea, dizziness

Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism

Primarily hepaticm the primary metabolite is 4-carboxypyrazole (approximately 80 to 85% of an administered dose). Other metabolites include 4-hydroxymethylpyrazole and the N -glucuronide conjugates of 4-carboxypyrazole and 4-hydroxymethylpyrazole.

Contraindications

Antizol should not be administered to patients with a documented serious hypersensitivity reaction to Antizol or other pyrazoles.

Drug Interactions

Oral doses of Antizol (10-20 mg/kg), via alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition, significantly reduced the rate of elimination of ethanol (by approximately 40%) given to healthy volunteers in moderate doses. Similarly, ethanol decreased the rate of elimination of Antizol (by approximately 50%) by the same mechanism.

Reciprocal interactions may occur with concomitant use of Antizol and drugs that increase or inhibit the cytochrome P450 system (e.g., phenytoin, carbamazepine, cimetidine, ketoconazole), though this has not been studied.

 

 

 

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