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Active ingredient: Eszopiclone - Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Drug Category

  • Hypnotics and Sedatives

Dosage Forms

  • Tablet

Brands / Synonyms

Esopiclone; Estorra; Eszopiclone [Usan]; Lunesta; Lunesta

Indications

For the treatment of insomnia

Pharmacology

Eszopiclone is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic, pyrrolopyrazine derivative of the cyclopyrrolone class and is indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. While Eszopiclone is a hypnotic agent with a chemical structure unrelated to benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or other drugs with known hypnotic properties, it interacts with the gamma-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine (GABABZ) receptor complex. Subunit modulation of the GABABZ receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex is hypothesized to be responsible for some of the pharmacological properties of benzodiazepines, which include sedative, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive effects in animal models. Eszopiclone binds selectively to the brain alpha subunit of the GABA A omega-1 receptor.

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of action of Eszopiclone is not completely understood. It is thought that Eszopiclone acts on the benzodiazepine receptors and interacts with GABA-receptor complexes.

Absorption

Rapidly absorbed following oral administration

Toxicity

Side effects include viral infection, dry mouth, dizziness, hallucinations, infection, rash, and unpleasant taste, with this relationship clearest for unpleasant taste depending on doses.

Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism

Following oral administration, eszopiclone is extensively metabolized by oxidation and demethylation.

Contraindications

None known.

Drug Interactions

CNS-Active Drugs

Ethanol

An additive effect on psychomotor performance was seen with coadministration of eszopiclone and ethanol 0.70 g/kg for up to 4 hours after ethanol administration.

Paroxetine

Coadministration of single doses of eszopiclone 3 mg and paroxetine 20 mg daily for 7 days produced no pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction.

Lorazepam

Coadministration of single doses of eszopiclone 3 mg and lorazepam 2 mg did not have clinically relevant effects on the pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics of either drug.

Olanzapine

Coadministration of eszopiclone 3 mg and olanzapine 10 mg produced a decrease in DSST scores. The interaction was pharmacodynamic; there was no alteration in the pharmacokinetics of either drug.

Drugs That Inhibit CYP3A4 (Ketoconazole)

CYP3A4 is a major metabolic pathway for elimination of eszopiclone. The AUC of eszopiclone was increased 2.2-fold by coadministration of ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, 400 mg daily for 5 days. Cmax and t1/2 were increased 1.4-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively. Other strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., itraconazole, clarithromycin, nefazodone, troleandomycin, ritonavir, nelfinavir) would be expected to behave similarly.

Drugs That Induce CYP3A4 (Rifampicin)

Racemic zopiclone exposure was decreased 80% by concomitant useof rifampicin, a potent inducer of CYP3A4. A similar effect would be expected with eszopiclone.

Drugs Highly Bound To Plasma Protein

Eszopiclone is not highly bound to plasma proteins (52-59% bound); therefore, the disposition of eszopiclone is not expected to be sensitive to alterations in protein binding. Administration of eszopiclone 3 mg to a patient taking another drug that is highly protein-bound would not be expected to cause an alteration in the free concentration of either drug.

Drugs With A Narrow Therapeutic Index

Digoxin

A single dose of eszopiclone 3 mg did not affect the pharmacokinetics of digoxin measured at steady state following dosing of 0.5 mg twice daily for one day and 0.25 mg daily for the next 6 days.

Warfarin

Eszopiclone 3 mg administered daily for 5 days did not affect the pharmacokinetics of (R)- or (S)-warfarin, nor were there any changes in the pharmacodynamic profile (prothrombin time) following a single 25 mg oral dose of warfarin.

 

 

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