Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Oral via capsule form or powder for reconstitution.
Brands / Synonyms
Diclossacillina [DCIT]; Dicloxacilin; Dicloxacilina [INN-Spanish]; Dicloxacillin; Dicloxacillin Sodium; Dicloxacillin [USAN:BAN:INN]; Dicloxacilline [INN-French]; Dicloxacillinum [INN-Latin]; Dicloxacycline; Dycill; Dynapen; Maclicine; Methyldichlorophenylisoxazolylpenicillin; Pathocil
Used to treat infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci which have demonstrated susceptibility to the drug.
Dicloxacillin is a beta-lactamase resistant penicillin similar to oxacillin. Dicloxacillin has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bactericidal activity of dicloxacillin results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and is mediated through dicloxacillin binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Dicloxacillin is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, including penicillinases, and cephalosporinases and extended spectrum beta-lactamases.
Mechanism of Action
Dicloxacillin exerts a bactericidal action against penicillin-susceptible microorganisms during the state of active multiplication. All penicillins inhibit the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, dicloxacillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that dicloxacillin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
Absorption of the isoxazolyl penicillins after oral administration is rapid but incomplete: peak blood levels are achieved in 1-1.5 hours. Oral absorption of cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin and nafcillin is delayed when the drugs are administered after meals.
Oral LD50 in rat is 3579 mg/kg. Symptoms of overexposure include irritation, rash, labored breathing, hives, itching, wheezing, nausea, chills, and fever.
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
A history of a hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reaction to any penicillin is a contraindication.
Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactercidal effect of penicillin and concurrent use
of these drugs should be avoided.