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Active ingredient: Daunorubicin - Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Drug Category

  • Antibiotics
  • Antineoplastic Agents

Dosage Forms

  • Powder for solution
  • Suspension

Brands / Synonyms

Acetyladriamycin; Anthracyline; Antibiotics From Streptomyces Coeruleorubidus; Cerubidin; Cerubidine; Daunamycin; Daunarubicinum; Daunoblastin; Daunomycin; Daunomycin Hydrochloride; Daunomycin, Hydrochloride; Daunorrubicina; Daunorubicin Hcl; Daunorubicin Hydrochloride; Daunorubicin, Hydrochloride; Daunorubicine; Daunorubicinum [Inn-Latin]; Daunoxome; DM1; Leukaemomycin C; Ondena; Rcra Waste No. U059; Rp 13057 Hydrochloride; Rubidomycin; Rubidomycin Hydrochloride; Rubomycin C

Indications

For remission induction in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (myelogenous, monocytic, erythroid) of adults and for remission induction in acute lymphocytic leukemia of children and adults.

Pharmacology

Daunorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction with DNA in a variety of different ways including intercalation (squeezing between the base pairs), DNA strand breakage and inhibition with the enzyme topoisomerase II. Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor drugs available. Doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. Daunorubicin may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical damage to DNA. Daunorubicin possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. The anthracyclines are cell cycle-nonspecific.

Mechanism of Action

Daunorubicin has antimitotic and cytotoxic activity through a number of proposed mechanisms of action: Daunorubicin forms complexes with DNA by intercalation between base pairs, and it inhibits topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the DNA-topoisomerase II complex, preventing the religation portion of the ligation-religation reaction that topoisomerase II catalyzes.

Absorption

Not Available

Toxicity

LD50=20 mg/kg (mice, IV); LD50=13 mg/kg (rat, IV)

Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism

Hepatic

Contraindications

Cerubidine is contraindicated in patients who have shown a hypersensitivity to it.

Drug Interactions

Use of Cerubidine in a patient who has previously received doxorubicin increases the risk of cardiotoxicity. Cerubidine should not be used in patients who have previously received the recommended maximum cumulative doses of doxorubicin or Cerubidine. Cyclophosphamide used concurrently with Cerubidine may also result in increased cardiotoxicity.

Dosage reduction of Cerubidine may be required when used concurrently with other myelosuppressive agents.

Hepatotoxic medications, such as high-dose methotrexate, may impair liver function and increase the risk of toxicity.

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