Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Anti-bacterial Agents
- Oral rinse
- Pellet (extended-release)
- Periochip (in a biodegradable matrix of hydrolyzed gelatin cross-linked with glutaraldehyde)
Brands / Synonyms
Bioscrub; Brian Care; Chlorhexidin; Chlorhexidin [Czech]; Chlorhexidine Base; Chlorhexidine Gluconate; Chlorhexidine, Free Base; Chlorhexidinum [Inn-Latin]; Cida-Stat; Cloresidina [DCIT]; Clorhexidina [Inn-Spanish]; Decanoylacetaldehyde Sodium Sulfide; Dyna-Hex; E-Z Scrub; Exidine; Fimeil; Hexadol; Hibiclens; Hibidil; Hibiscrub; Hibisol; Hibispray; Hibistat; Hibitane; Microderm; Nolvasan; Oro-Clense; Peridex; Periochip; Periogard; Pharmaseal Scrub Care; Prevacare R; Rotersept; Savloclens; Savlon Babycare; Sodium Houttuyfonamide; Soretol; Steri-Stat; Sterido; Sterilon; Superspray; Tubulicid
For reduction of pocket depth in patients with adult periodontitis, used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing procedures. Also for prevention of dental caries, oropharyngeal decontamination in critically ill patients, hand hygiene in health-care personnel, general skin cleanser, and catheter site preparation and care.
Chlorhexidine, a topical antimicrobial agent, is bactericidal. Because of its positive charge, the chlorhexidine molecule reacts with the microbial cell surface to destroy the integrity of the cell membrane. This novel mechanism of action makes it highly unlikely for the development of bacterial resistance.
Mechanism of Action
Chlorhexidine's antimicrobial effects are associated with the attractions between chlorhexidine (cation) and negatively charged bacterial cells. After chlorhexidine is absorpted onto the organism's cell wall, it disrupts the integrity of the cell membrane and causes the leakage of intracellular components of the organisms.
Absorption of chlorhexidine from the gastrointestinal tract is very poor. Additionally, an in vivo study in 18 adult patients found no detectable plasma or urine chlorhexidine concentrations following insertion of four periodontal implants under clinical conditions.
LD50= 2g/kg (human, oral); LD50= 3 g/kg (rat, oral); LD50= 2.5 g/kg (mice, oral); LD50= 21 mg/kg (male rat, IV); LD50= 23 mg/kg (female rat, IV); LD50= 25 mg/kg (male mice, IV); LD50= 24 mg/kg (female mice, IV); LD50= 1g/kg (rat, subcutaneous); LD50= 637 mg/kg (male mice, subcutaneous); LD50= 632 mg/kg (female mice, subcutaneous)
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
PerioChip should not be used in any patient who has a known sensitivity to chlorhexidine.
No information provided.