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Active ingredient: Chlorambucil - Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Drug Category

  • Antineoplastic Agents

Dosage Forms

  • Tablet

Brands / Synonyms

Ambochlorin; Amboclorin; Chlocambucil; Chloraminophen; Chloraminophene; Chlorbutin; Chlorbutine; Chloroambucil; Chlorobutin; Chlorobutine; Ecloril; Elcoril; Leukeran; Leukeran Tablets; Leukersan; Leukoran; Linfolizin; Linfolysin; Pepstatin; Phenylbuttersaeure-Lost; Phenylbutyric Acid Nitrogen Mustard

Indications

For treatment of chronic lymphatic (lymphocytic) leukemia, malignant lymphomas including lymphosarcoma, giant follicular lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease

Pharmacology

Chlorambucil is an antineoplastic in the class of alkylating agents and is used to treat various forms of cancer. Alkylating agents are so named because of their ability to add alkyl groups to many electronegative groups under conditions present in cells. They stop tumor growth by cross-linking guanine bases in DNA double-helix strands - directly attacking DNA. This makes the strands unable to uncoil and separate. As this is necessary in DNA replication, the cells can no longer divide. In addition, these drugs add methyl or other alkyl groups onto molecules where they do not belong which in turn inhibits their correct utilization by base pairing and causes a miscoding of DNA. Alkylating agents are cell cycle-nonspecific. Alkylating agents work by three different mechanisms all of which achieve the same end result - disruption of DNA function and cell death.

Mechanism of Action

Alkylating agents work by three different mechanisms: 1) attachment of alkyl groups to DNA bases, resulting in the DNA being fragmented by repair enzymes in their attempts to replace the alkylated bases, preventing DNA synthesis and RNA transcription from the affected DNA, 2) DNA damage via the formation of cross-links (bonds between atoms in the DNA) which prevents DNA from being separated for synthesis or transcription, and 3) the induction of mispairing of the nucleotides leading to mutations.

Absorption

Not Available

Toxicity

Not Available

Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism

Not Available

Contraindications

Chlorambucil should not be used in patients whose disease has demonstrated a prior resistance to the agent. Patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to chlorambucil should not be given the drug.There may be cross-hypersensitivity (skin rash) between chlorambucil and other alkylating agents.

Drug Interactions

There are no known drug/drug interactions with chlorambucil.

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