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Active ingredient: Cephalexin - Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Drug Category

  • Anti-bacterial Agents
  • Cephalosporins

Dosage Forms

  • Capsules (containing cephalexin monohydrate equivalent to 250 mg or 500 mg cephalexin)
  • Tablet (containing cephalexin monohydrate equivalent to 250 mg or 500 mg of cephalexin)
  • Suspension

Brands / Synonyms

Alcephin; Alexin; Alsporin; Biocef; Carnosporin; Cefa-iskia; Cefablan; Cefadal; Cefadin; Cefadina; Cefaleksin; Cefalessina [DCIT]; Cefalexin; Cefalexin (JP14); Cefalexin Sodium; Cefalexina [INN-Spanish]; Cefalexine [INN-French]; Cefalexinum [INN-Latin]; Cefalin; Cefaloto; Cefaseptin; Cefax; Ceforal; Cefovit; Celexin; Cepastar; Cepexin; Cephacillin; Cephalexin (free base); Cephalexin (USP); Cephalexin 1-hydrate; Cephalexin hydrate; Cephalexin monohydrate; Cephalexine; Cephalexinum; Cephanasten; Cephaxin; Cephin; Cepol; Ceporex; Ceporex Forte; Ceporexin; Ceporexin-E; Ceporexine; CEX; Check; Cophalexin; Durantel; Durantel DS; Ed A-Ceph; Erocetin; Factagard; Felexin; Fexin; Ibilex; Ibrexin; Inphalex; Kefalospes; Keflet; Keflex; Kefolan; Keforal; Keftab; Kekrinal; Kidolex; L-Keflex; Lafarine; Larixin; Lenocef; Lexibiotico; Lonflex; Lopilexin; Madlexin; Mamalexin; Mamlexin; Medoxine; Neokef; Neolexina; Novolexin; Nufex; Oracef; Oriphex; Oroxin; Ortisporina; Ospexin; Palitrex; Panixine Disperdose; Pectril; Pyassan; Roceph; Roceph Distab; Sanaxin; Sartosona; Sencephalin; Sepexin; Servispor; Sialexin; Sinthecillin; Sporicef; Sporidex; Syncl; Syncle; Synecl; Tepaxin; Tokiolexin; Uphalexin; Voxxim; Winlex; Zozarine

Indications

For the treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes; otitis media due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Moraxella catarrhalis; skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes; bone infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract infections, including acute prostatitis, caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Pharmacology

Cephalexin (also called Cefalexin) is a first generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It is one of the most widely prescribed antibiotics, often used for the treatment of superficial infections that result as complications of minor wounds or lacerations. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria.

Mechanism of Action

Cephalexin, like the penicillins, is a beta-lactam antibiotic. By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, it inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that cephalexin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

Absorption

Well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include blood in the urine, diarrhea, nausea, upper abdominal pain, and vomiting. The oral median lethal dose of cephalexin in rats is >5000 mg/kg.

Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism

No appreciable biotransformation in the liver (90% of the drug is excreted unchanged in the urine).

Contraindications

Keflex is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.

Drug Interactions

Metformin ó In healthy subjects given single 500 mg doses of cephalexin and metformin, plasma metformin mean cmax and AUC increased by an average of 34% and 24%, respectively, and metformin mean renal clearance decreased by 14%. No information is available about the interaction of cephalexin and metformin following multiple doses of either drug.

Although not observed in this study, adverse effects could potentially arise from co-administration of cephalexin and metformin by inhibition of tubular secretion via organic cationic transporter systems. Accordingly, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin is recommended in patients concomitantly taking cephalexin and metformin.

Probenecid ó As with other b -lactams, the renal excretion of cephalexin is inhibited by probenecid.

Drug / Laboratory Test Interactions

As a result of administration of Keflex, a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur. This has been observed with Benedictís and Fehlingís solutions and also with Clinitest® tablets.

 

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