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Active ingredient: Cefuroxime - Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Drug Category

  • Anti-bacterial Agents
  • Cephalosporins

Dosage Forms

  • Powder
  • Powder for oral suspension
  • Tablet (125, 250, or 500 mg)

Brands / Synonyms

Ancef; Biofuroksym; Ceclor; Ceclor CD; Cedax; Cefditoren; Cefizox; Cefobid; Cefotan; Ceftin; Cefurax; Cefuril; Cefuroxim; Cefuroxime [USAN:BAN:INN]; Cefuroximo [INN-Spanish]; Cefuroximum [INN-Latin]; Cefzil; Cepazine; Cephuroxime; Ceptaz; Duricef; Elobact; Fortaz; Keflex; Keftab; Kefurox; Kefzol; Kerurox; Mandol; Maxipime; Mefoxin; Monocid; Omnicef; Oraxim; Rocephin; Sharox; Tazicef; Vantin; Velosef; Zinacef; Zinacef Danmark; Zinat; Zinnat

Indications

For the treatment of many different types of bacterial infections such as bronchitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, ear infections, skin infections, gonorrhea, and urinary tract infections.

Pharmacology

Cefuroxime is a β-lactam type antibiotic. More specifically, it is a second-generation cephalosporin. Cephalosporins work the same way as penicillins: they interfere with the peptidoglycan synthesis of the bacterial wall by inhibiting the final transpeptidation needed for the cross-links. This effect is bactericidal. Cefuroxime is effective against the following organisms: Aerobic Gram-positive Microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes. Aerobic Gram-negative Microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase-producing strains), Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis (including beta-lactamase-producing strains), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including beta-lactamase-producing strains). Spirochetes: Borrelia burgdorferi.

Mechanism of Action

Cefuroxime, like the penicillins, is a beta-lactam antibiotic. By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, it inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that cefuroxime interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

Absorption

Absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Absorption is greater when taken after food (absolute bioavailability increases from 37% to 52%).

Toxicity

Allergic reactions might be expected, including rash, nasal congestion, cough, dry throat, eye irritation, or anaphylactic shock. Overdosage of cephalosporins can cause cerebral irritation leading to convulsions.

Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism

The axetil moiety is metabolized to acetaldehyde and acetic acid.

Contraindications

Cefuroxime for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics. Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to corn products.

Drug Interactions

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions: A false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur with copper reduction tests (Benedictís or Fehlingís solution or with ClinitestÒ tablets) but not with enzyme-based tests for glycosuria. As a false-negative result may occur in the ferricyanide test, it is recommended that either the glucose oxidase or hexokinase method be used to determine blood plasma glucose levels in patients receiving cefuroxime.

Cefuroxime does not interfere with the assay of serum and urine creatinine by the alkaline picrate method.

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