Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Vasodilator Agents
- Antihypertensive Agents
- Adrenergic Agents
Brands / Synonyms
Carvedilol [Usan:Ban:Inn:Jan]; Carvedilolum [Latin]; Coreg; Coreg
; Coreg CR
For the treatment of mild or moderate (NYHA class II or III) heart failure of ischemic or cardiomyopathic origin.
Carvedilol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent with alpha1-blocking activity and is indicated for the treatment of hypertension and mild or moderate (NYHA class II or III) heart failure of ischemic or cardiomyopathic origin. Carvedilol is a racemic mixture in which nonselective b-adrenoreceptor blocking activity is present in the S(-) enantiomer and a-adrenergic blocking activity is present in both R(+) and S(-) enantiomers at equal potency. Carvedilol has no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. The effect of carvedilol's b-adrenoreceptor blocking activity has been demonstrated in animal and human studies showing that carvedilol (1) reduces cardiac output in normal subjects; (2) reduces exercise-and/or isoproterenol-induced tachycardia and (3) reduces reflex orthostatic tachycardia.
Mechanism of Action
Carvedilol is a racemic mixture in which nonselective beta-adrenoreceptor blocking activity is present in the S(-) enantiomer and alpha-adrenergic blocking activity is present in both R(+) and S(-) enantiomers at equal potency. Carvedilol's beta-adrenergic receptor blocking ability decreases the heart rate, myocardial contractility, and myocardial oxygen demand. Carvedilol also decreases systemic vascular resistance via its alpha adrenergic receptor blocking properties. Carvedilol and its metabolite BM-910228 (a less potent beta blocker, but more potent antioxidant) have been shown to restore the inotropic responsiveness to Ca2+ in OH- free radical-treated myocardium. Carvedilol and its metabolites also prevent OH- radical-induced decrease in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase activity. Therefore, carvedilol and its metabolites may be beneficial in chronic heart failure by preventing free radical damage.
Carvedilol is rapidly and extensively absorbed following oral administration, with an absolute bioavailability of approximately 25% to 35% due to a significant degree of first-pass metabolism.
Not expected to be toxic following ingestion.
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
Hepatic. Carvedilol is metabolized primarily by aromatic ring oxidation and glucuronidation. The oxidative metabolites are further metabolized by conjugation via glucuronidation and sulfation. Demethylation and hydroxylation at the phenol ring produce three active metabolites with b-receptor blocking activity. The 4'-hydroxyphenyl metabolite is approximately 13 times more potent than carvedilol for b-blockade.
COREG is contraindicated in patients with bronchial asthma (2 cases of death from status asthmaticus have been
reported in patients receiving single doses of COREG) or related bronchospastic conditions, second- or third-degree
AV block, sick sinus syndrome or severe bradycardia (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place), or in patients with
cardiogenic shock or who have decompensated heart failure requiring the use of intravenous inotropic therapy. Such
patients should first be weaned from intravenous therapy before initiating COREG.
Use of COREG in patients with clinically manifest hepatic impairment is not recommended.
COREG is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to any component of the product.
(Also see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug
Inhibitors of CYP2D6; poor metabolizers of debrisoquin: Interactions of carvedilol with strong
inhibitors of CYP2D6 (such as quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and propafenone) have not been studied, but these
drugs would be expected to increase blood levels of the R(+) enantiomer of carvedilol . Retrospective analysis of
side effects in clinical trials showed that poor 2D6 metabolizers had a higher rate of dizziness during up-titration,
presumably resulting from vasodilating effects of the higher concentrations of the a-blocking R(+) enantiomer.
Catecholamine-depleting Agents: Patients taking both agents with b-blocking
properties and a drug that can deplete catecholamines (e.g., reserpine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors) should be
observed closely for signs of hypotension and/or severe bradycardia.
Clonidine: Concomitant administration of clonidine with agents with b-blocking properties may potentiate blood-pressure- and heart-rate-lowering effects. When concomitant
treatment with agents with b-blocking properties and clonidine is to be terminated, the
b-blocking agent should be discontinued first. Clonidine therapy can then be discontinued
several days later by gradually decreasing the dosage.
Cyclosporine: Modest increases in mean trough cyclosporine concentrations were observed following
initiation of carvedilol treatment in 21 renal transplant patients suffering from chronic vascular rejection. In
about 30% of patients, the dose of cyclosporine had to be reduced in order to maintain cyclosporine concentrations
within the therapeutic range, while in the remainder no adjustment was needed. On the average for the group, the dose
of cyclosporine was reduced about 20% in these patients. Due to wide interindividual variability in the dose
adjustment required, it is recommended that cyclosporine concentrations be monitored closely after initiation of
carvedilol therapy and that the dose of cyclosporine be adjusted as appropriate.
Digoxin: Digoxin concentrations are increased by about 15% when digoxin and carvedilol are
administered concomitantly. Both digoxin and COREG slow AV conduction. Therefore, increased monitoring of digoxin is
recommended when initiating, adjusting, or discontinuing COREG.
Inducers and Inhibitors of Hepatic Metabolism: Rifampin reduced plasma concentrations of carvedilol
by about 70%. Cimetidine increased AUC by about 30% but caused no change in Cmax.
Calcium Channel Blockers: Isolated cases of conduction disturbance (rarely with hemodynamic
compromise) have been observed when COREG is co-administered with diltiazem. As with other agents with b-blocking properties, if COREG is to be administered orally with calcium channel blockers of the
verapamil or diltiazem type, it is recommended that ECG and blood pressure be monitored.
Insulin or Oral Hypoglycemics: Agents with b-blocking properties may
enhance the blood-sugar-reducing effect of insulin and oral hypoglycemics. Therefore, in patients taking insulin or
oral hypoglycemics, regular monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.