Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Antineoplastic Agents
- Powder for solution
Brands / Synonyms
Blenoxane; Bleo; Bleocin; Bleomicin; Bleomicina [INN-Spanish]; Bleomycin; Bleomycin (USAN); Bleomycin sulfate; Bleomycine [INN-French]; Bleomycins; Bleomycinum [INN-Latin]
For palliative treatment in the management malignant neoplasm (trachea, bronchus, lung), squamous cell carcinoma, and lymphomas.
Bleomycin is an antibiotic which has been shown to have antitumor activity. Bleomycin selectively inhibits the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The guanine and cytosine content correlates with the degree of mitomycin-induced cross-linking. At high concentrations of the drug, cellular RNA and protein synthesis are also suppressed. Bleomycin has been shown in vitro to inhibit B cell, T cell, and macrophage proliferation and impair antigen presentation, as well as the secretion of interferon gamma, TNFa, and IL-2. The antibiotic antitumor drugs are cell cycle-nonspecific except for Bleomycin (which has major effects in G2 and M phases).
Mechanism of Action
Although the exact mechanism of action of bleomycin is unknown, available evidence would seem to indicate that the main mode of action is the inhibition of DNA synthesis with some evidence of lesser inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis.
Systemic absorption is approximately 45%.
Excessive exposure may cause fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, mental, confusion, and wheezing. Bleomycin may cause irritation to eyes, skin and respiratory tract. It may also cause a darkening or thickening of the skin. It may cause an allergic reaction.
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
Bleomycin is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated a hypersensitive or an idiosyncratic reaction to it.
Certain antibiotic, cisplatin, cyclosporine, diuretic, foscarnet, and vaccines.