Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
- Anti-bacterial Agents
Brands / Synonyms
AB-PC; Ab-Pc Sol; Acillin; Adobacillin; AIC; Alpen; Amblosin; Amcill; Amfipen; Amfipen V; Aminobenzylpenicillin; Amipenix S; Ampen; Ampi; Ampi-Bol; Ampi-Co; Ampi-Tab; Ampichel; Ampicil; Ampicilina [Inn-Spanish]; Ampicillin; Ampicillin A; Ampicillin Acid; Ampicillin and Sulbactam; Ampicillin Anhydrate; Ampicillin Anhydrous; Ampicillin Base; Ampicillin Sodium; Ampicillin Trihydrate; Ampicillin [Usan:Ban:Inn:Jan]; Ampicillina [Dcit]; Ampicilline; Ampicilline [Inn-French]; Ampicillinum [Inn-Latin]; Ampicin; Ampifarm; Ampikel; Ampimed; Ampipenin; Ampipenin, Nt3; Ampiscel; Ampisyn; Ampivax; Ampivet; Amplacilina; Amplin; Amplipenyl; Amplisom; Amplital; Ampy-Penyl; Anhydrous Ampicillin; Austrapen; Bayer 5427; Binotal; Bonapicillin; Britacil; BRL; Campicillin; Cimex; Copharcilin; D-Ampicillin; D-Cillin; Delcillin; Deripen; Divercillin; Doktacillin; Duphacillin; Geocillin; Grampenil; Guicitrina; Guicitrine; Lifeampil; Morepen; Norobrittin; Novo-Ampicillin; Nuvapen; Olin Kid; Omnipen; Omnipen-N; Orbicilina; Pen A; Pen a Oral; Pen Ampil; Penbristol; Penbritin; Penbritin Paediatric; Penbritin Syrup; Penbritin-S; Penbrock; Penicline; Penimic; Pensyn; Pentrex; Pentrexl; Pentrexyl; Pfizerpen A; Pfizerpen-A; Polycillin; Polycillin-N; Ponecil; Princillin; Principen; Principen '125'; Principen '250'; Principen '500'; Qidamp; Racenacillin; Ro-Ampen; Rosampline; Roscillin; Semicillin; Semicillin R; Servicillin; Sk-Ampicillin; Spectrobid; Sumipanto; Supen; Synpenin; Texcillin; Tokiocillin; Tolomol; Totacillin; Totacillin-N; Totalciclina; Totapen; Trifacilina; Ultrabion; Ultrabron; Unasyn; Vampen; Viccillin; Viccillin S; Wypicil
For treatment of infection (Respiratory, GI, UTI and meningitis) due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, enterococci, Shigella, S. typhosa and other Salmonella, nonpenicillinase-producing N. gononhoeae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, streptococci including streptoc
Ampicillin is a penicillin beta-lactam antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually gram-positive, organisms. The name "penicillin" can either refer to several variants of penicillin available, or to the group of antibiotics derived from the penicillins. Ampicillin has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bactericidal activity of Ampicillin results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and is mediated through Ampicillin binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Ampicillin is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, including penicillinases, and cephalosporinases and extended spectrum beta-lactamases.
Mechanism of Action
By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, Ampicillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that Ampicillin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
A history of a previous hypersensitivity reaction to any of the penicillins is a contraindication. Ampicillin is
also contraindicated in infections caused by penicillinase-producing organisms.
When administered concurrently, the following drugs may interact with ampicillin.
Allopurinol: Increased possibility of skin rash, particularly in hyperuricemic patients may
Bacteriostatic Antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, erythromycins, sulfonamides, or tetracyclines may
interfere with the bactericidal effect of penicillins. This has been demonstrated in view, however, the clinical
significance of this interaction is not well documented.
Oral Contraceptives: May be less effective and increased breakthrough bleeding may occur.
Probenecid: May decrease renal tubular secretion of ampicillin resulting in increased blood levels
and/or ampicillin toxicity.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interaction
After treatment with ampicillin, a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur with copper sulfate
tests (Benedict's solution, Fehling's solution, or Clinitest tablets) but not with enzyme based tests such as
Clinistix and Glucose Enzymatic Test Strip USP.