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Active ingredient: Amikacin - Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Drug Category

  • Anti-bacterial Agents
  • Aminoglycosides

Dosage Forms

  • IM infusion
  • IM injection

Brands / Synonyms

Amicacin; Amiglyde-V; Amikacin; Amikacin Base; Amikacin Dihydrate; Amikacin Sulfate; Amikacin [Usan:Ban:Inn]; Amikacina [Inn-Spanish]; Amikacine [Inn-French]; Amikacinum [Inn-Latin]; Amikavet; Amikin; ANTIBIOTIC BB-K8; BB-K8; Briclin; Novamin

Indications

For short-term treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, species of indole-positive and indole-negative Proteus, Providencia species, Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia species, and Acinetobacter (Mima-Herellea) species.

Pharmacology

Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter. In addition, some mycobacteria, including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, are susceptible to aminoglycosides. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria can also be treated with aminoglycosides, but other types of antibiotics are more potent and less damaging to the host. In the past the aminoglycosides have been used in conjunction with penicillin-related antibiotics in streptococcal infections for their synergistic effects, particularly in endocarditis. Aminoglycosides are mostly ineffective against anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses.

Mechanism of Action

Aminoglycosides like Amikacin "irreversibly" bind to specific 30S-subunit proteins and 16S rRNA. Amikacin inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit to prevent the formation of an initiation complex with messenger RNA. Specifically Amikacin binds to four nucleotides of 16S rRNA and a single amino acid of protein S12. This interferes with decoding site in the vicinity of nucleotide 1400 in 16S rRNA of 30S subunit. This region interacts with the wobble base in the anticodon of tRNA. This leads to interference with the initiation complex, misreading of mRNA so incorrect amino acids are inserted into the polypeptide leading to nonfunctional or toxic peptides and the breakup of polysomes into nonfunctional monosomes.

Absorption

Rapidly absorbed after intramuscular administration

Toxicity

Not Available

Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism

Not Available

Contraindications

A history of hypersensitivity to amikacin is a contraindication for its use. A history of hypersensitivity or serious toxic reactions to aminoglycosides may contraindicate the use of any other aminoglycoside because of the known cross-sensitivities of patients to drugs in this class.

Drug Interactions

No information provided.

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