Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data
Brands / Synonyms
Campath; Campath (ILEX Pharmaceuticals LP)
Humanized monoclonal antibody specific to lymphocyte antigens. It is a recombinant DNA-derived humanized monoclonal antibody (Campath-1H) that is directed against the 21-28 kD cell surface glycoprotein,CD52. The Campath-1H antibody is an IgG1 kappa with human variable framework and constant regions, and complementarity-determining regions from a murine (rat) monoclonal antibody (Campath-1G). Campath is produced in mammalian cell (Chinese hamster ovary) suspension culture in a medium containing neomycin.
For treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Campath is used to treat leukemia by exploiting antibody mediated lysis of CD52 presenting cells. The CD52 antigen is a cell surface protein found on essentially all B and T lymphocytes, a majority of monocytes, macrophages and most granulocytes. The CD52 antigen is not present on erythrocytes or hematopoetic stem cells. In leukemia there is an excess of B and T cells, so Campath permits selective reduction of lymphocyte populations.
Mechanism of Action
Campath binds to the CD52 antigen present on most B and T lymphocytes. This binding leads to antibody-dependent lysis of leukemic cells.
Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism
Most likely removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system when bound to B or T lymphocytes