Carbachol alleviates rat cytokine release and organ dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide.
Author(s): Zhou G, Hu S, Lv Y, Song Q, Zou X, Sheng Z
Affiliation(s): Laboratory of Shock and Organ Dysfunction, the First Hospital Affiliated to the People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.
Publication date & source: 2011-07, J Trauma., 71(1):157-62.
Publication type: Comparative Study
BACKGROUND: To observe the influence of carbachol on inflammatory cytokine release and its protective role on organ function in rat endotoxemia model, and, furthermore, to investigate its receptor mechanism in rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. METHODS: In the animal experiments, Wistar rats were subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (5 mg/kg body weight) to establish an endotoxemia animal model, and carbachol/nicotine was given 15 minutes after LPS injection. Serum contents of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 4 hours after LPS injection. Plasma alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase-MB, and diamine oxidase contents were detected 24 hours after LPS injection. In cell experiments, rat peritoneal macrophages were collected and initially pretreated with atropine (muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist) or alpha-Bungarotoxin (an antagonist that specifically binds alpha7 subunit of nicotinic cholinergic receptor), then with carbachol or nicotine, and finally stimulated with LPS. Contents of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 in supernatant were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, macrophages were exposed to nicotine and carbachol of high concentration and then stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled alpha-bungarotoxin and observed with fluorescent confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Carbachol inhibited expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 after LPS injection and had no significant effect on IL-10 in rat endotoxemia model. It also inhibited the increase of plasma alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase-MB contents whereas restored the inhibited plasma diamine oxidase activity. Cell experiments also showed that increases of TNF-alpha and IL-6 after LPS stimulation could be significantly inhibited by carbachol or nicotine, whereas IL-10 was not apparently altered. Atropine did not downregulate the inhibitive effects of both carbachol and nicotine, whereas alpha-bungarotoxin significantly downregulated these effects. Fluorescent confocal microscopy showed that nicotine and carbachol pretreatment markedly reduced the intensity of binding between fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled alpha-bungarotoxin and macrophages. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that both carbachol and nicotine play a role in the anti-inflammatory process and organ function protection through the alpha7 subunit of nicotinic cholinergic receptor.