Utilization of services in a randomized trial testing phone- and web-based interventions for smoking cessation.
Author(s): Zbikowski SM, Jack LM, McClure JB, Deprey M, Javitz HS, McAfee TA, Catz SL, Richards J, Bush T, Swan GE
Affiliation(s): Free & Clear, Inc., Clinical and Behavioral Sciences, Seattle, WA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication date & source: 2011-05, Nicotine Tob Res., 13(5):319-27. Epub 2011 Jan 31.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
INTRODUCTION: Phone counseling has become standard for behavioral smoking cessation treatment. Newer options include Web and integrated phone-Web treatment. No prior research, to our knowledge, has systematically compared the effectiveness of these three treatment modalities in a randomized trial. Understanding how utilization varies by mode, the impact of utilization on outcomes, and predictors of utilization across each mode could lead to improved treatments. METHODS: One thousand two hundred and two participants were randomized to phone, Web, or combined phone-Web cessation treatment. Services varied by modality and were tracked using automated systems. All participants received 12 weeks of varenicline, printed guides, an orientation call, and access to a phone supportline. Self-report data were collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, participants utilized phone services more often than the Web-based services. Among treatment groups with Web access, a significant proportion logged in only once (37% phone-Web, 41% Web), and those in the phone-Web group logged in less often than those in the Web group (mean = 2.4 vs. 3.7, p = .0001). Use of the phone also was correlated with increased use of the Web. In multivariate analyses, greater use of the phone- or Web-based services was associated with higher cessation rates. Finally, older age and the belief that certain treatments could improve success were consistent predictors of greater utilization across groups. Other predictors varied by treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunities for enhancing treatment utilization exist, particularly for Web-based programs. Increasing utilization more broadly could result in better overall treatment effectiveness for all intervention modalities.