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A comparison of short-term exposure of once-daily extended release tacrolimus and twice-daily cyclosporine on renal function in healthy volunteers.

Author(s): Zaltzman JS

Affiliation(s): Department of Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. jeffrey.zaltzman@utoronto.ca

Publication date & source: 2010-12-15, Transplantation., 90(11):1185-91.

Publication type: Comparative Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

BACKGROUND: Calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity remains an issue for recipients of solid organ transplants. After cyclosporine A (CsA) microemulsion administration, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) are decreased coincident with the maximal concentration (Cmax) of CsA. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the once-daily formulation of tacrolimus extended release (Tac ER) includes an equivalent AUCPK 0-24 hr and a lower Cmax versus twice-daily Tac immediate release. METHODS: Eighteen healthy subjects were allocated once-daily Tac ER and twice-daily CsA in a prospective, randomized,open-label, two-period, two-sequence single crossover study. CsA was targeted to C2 of 700 to 1400 ng/mL, and Tac ER was targeted to C0 of 5 to 10 ng/mL. Pharmacodynamic (PD) assessments were conducted preexposure, and PD and PK were assessed during a 6-hr postdose period after 10-day exposure. RESULTS: The achieved mean C(o) Tac and CsA were 6.4 +/- 1.16 and 201 +/- 57 ng/mL, respectively. At Cmax, the change in ERPF was +30 +/- 127 vs. -70 +/- 96 mL/min/1.73 m2 relative to baseline for Tac ER and CsA (P=0.0085). The ERPF and GFR AUC (PD 0-6) hr were 3645 +/- 887 vs. 3210 +/- 582 mL/1.73 m2 (P=0.027) and 604 +/- 98 vs. 543+/- 79 mL/1.73 m2(P=0.023) for Tac ER versus CsA, respectively. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly greater with exposure to CsA compared with Tac ER. CONCLUSIONS: Acute reductions in ERPF and GFR are attenuated with Tac ER compared with CsA and may correlate with the differing PK profiles of these calcineurin inhibitors.

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