Comparison of Calcium Acetate and Sevelamer on Vascular Function and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in CKD Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Author(s): Yilmaz MI, Sonmez A, Saglam M, Yaman H, Kilic S, Eyileten T, Caglar K, Oguz Y, Vural A, Yenicesu M, Mallamaci F, Zoccali C
Affiliation(s): Department of Nephrology, Gulhane School of Medicine, Etlik-Ankara, Turkey.
Publication date & source: 2011-11-30, Am J Kidney Dis., [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a marker of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because previous studies suggested that sevelamer may exert effects on FGF-23 level and endothelial function independently of its phosphate-lowering action, we tested the effect of sevelamer versus calcium acetate on vascular function and FGF-23 levels. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized prospective open-label trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Patients with stage 4 CKD with hyperphosphatemia (n = 100). INTERVENTION: An 8-week intervention with sevelamer (n = 47) and calcium acetate (n = 53). OUTCOMES: The primary study outcome was change in flow-mediated vasodilatation in the forearm. The secondary outcome was change in FGF-23 levels. RESULTS: Serum phosphate levels decreased in both treatment arms (P < 0.001), but more markedly in the sevelamer group (P < 0.001). Flow-mediated vasodilatation increased from 6.1% to 7.1% (P < 0.001) in sevelamer-treated patients, whereas it was unchanged in the calcium-acetate group (6.0% vs 6.0%). In a combined analysis, treatment-induced changes in flow-mediated vasodilatation were (P < 0.001) associated with simultaneous changes in FGF-23 levels (-27.1% [-33.2% to -8.8%] for the sevelamer group; 3.5% [-8.4% to 12.1%] for the calcium acetate group), as well as with C-reactive protein and fetuin A levels. These relationships were confirmed in multiple regression analysis adjusting for changes in serum phosphate levels and other factors. LIMITATIONS: Unblinded randomized controlled study that cannot establish mechanisms of effect. CONCLUSIONS: In hyperphosphatemic patients with stage 4 CKD, treatment with phosphate lowering induces measurable improvements in flow-mediated vasodilatation. Furthermore, independently of serum phosphate level, FGF-23 level changes induced by phosphate binders are associated with simultaneous changes in flow-mediated vasodilatation. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that FGF-23 may contribute to vascular dysfunction in this population. Copyright (c) 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.