The abuse potential of zolpidem administered alone and with alcohol.
Author(s): Wilkinson CJ
Affiliation(s): Southern California Research Institute, Los Angeles 90066, USA.
Publication date & source: 1998-05, Pharmacol Biochem Behav., 60(1):193-202.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial
The abuse potential of zolpidem, alone and in combination with alcohol, was examined in healthy volunteers with a history of social use of alcohol and drugs. Zolpidem, a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic with selectivity for a benzodiazepine receptor subtype (BZ1 or omega1), was administered double blind at 0, 10, or 15 mg with alcohol (0.75 g ethanol/kg b.wt.) or with placebo beverage in a randomized, six-way crossover design. Outcome measures included the Drug Effect Questionnaire (DEQ), the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI-40), and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were not significantly modified by zolpidem. Relative to placebo, zolpidem and alcohol significantly (p < 0.05) increased drug strength perception, drug-liking, and drug-disliking scores on the DEQ. On the ARCI-40, zolpidem and alcohol significantly increased sedation/intoxication and dysphoria/fear scores, but did not significantly change euphoria/well-being scores. Zolpidem and alcohol were rated more unfavorably than placebo on the POMS. Alcohol did not have additive effects on the subjective ratings for zolpidem. It is concluded that, for this population and at the doses tested, the abuse potential of zolpidem appears to be modest and not increased by alcohol.