Hematologic changes associated with Adderall toxicity in a dog.
Author(s): Wilcox A, Russell KE
Affiliation(s): Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4467, USA.
Publication date & source: 2008-06, Vet Clin Pathol., 37(2):184-9.
Publication type: Case Reports
A 1-year-old intact male Boxer was presented to the Texas Veterinary Medical Center for emergency treatment following suspected ingestion of a large number of tablets of Adderall, a pharmaceutical amphetamine. The dog had a temperature of 41.7 degrees C, heart rate of 192 beats per minute, and a respiratory rate of 100 breaths per minute. The dog was anxious and agitated with bilaterally dilated pupils, and shortly thereafter became recumbent and incontinent. Initial CBC results included mild leukopenia and mild thrombocytopenia. The dog was not anemic (HCT 39.9%) and had only slight polychromasia, but had 48 nucleated RBCs/100 WBC (7500/microL). Moderate numbers of neutrophils had hypersegmented nuclei and several pyknotic cells were noted. The metarubricytosis persisted for approximately 56 hours while hypersegmentation and pyknotic cells were no longer found at 8 hours after presentation. The dog received supportive care and recovered uneventfully. We hypothesized that hyperpyrexia associated with Adderall toxicity resulted in inappropriate metarubricytosis due to damaged bone marrow endothelium, and resulted in hypersegmentation and pyknosis due to damaged or accelerated aging of neutrophils in peripheral blood. Metarubricytosis has been reported previously in dogs with heat-induced illness, such as heat stroke.