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Clinical trial: the impact of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on gastrointestinal recovery after major surgery - a randomized double blind controlled trial of celecoxib or diclofenac vs. placebo.

Author(s): Wattchow DA, De Fontgalland D, Bampton PA, Leach PL, McLaughlin K, Costa M

Affiliation(s): Departments of Surgery, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA, Australia. david.wattchow@flinders.edu.au

Publication date & source: 2009-11-15, Aliment Pharmacol Ther., 30(10):987-98. Epub 2009 Aug 20.

Publication type: Comparative Study; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial

BACKGROUND: Ileus occurs after abdominal surgery and may be severe. Inhibition of prostaglandin release reduces post-operative ileus in a rat model. AIM: To determine whether prostaglandin inhibition by cyclooxygenase inhibitors, celecoxib or diclofenac, could enhance gastrointestinal recovery and reduce post-operative ileus in humans. METHODS: Two hundred and ten patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery were randomized to receive twice daily placebo (n = 67), celecoxib (100 mg, n = 74) or diclofenac (50 mg, n = 69), preoperatively and continuing for up to 7 days. Primary outcomes were hallmarks of gut recovery. Secondary outcomes were paralytic ileus, pain and complications. RESULTS: There was no clinically significant difference between the groups for restoration of bowel function. There was a significant reduction in paralytic ileus in the celecoxib-treated group (n = 1, 1%) compared with diclofenac (n = 7, 10%) and placebo (n = 9, 13%); P = 0.025, RR 0.20, CI 0.01-0.77. Pain scores, analgesia, transfusion requirements and adverse event rates were similar between study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative low dose celecoxib, but not diclofenac, markedly reduced the development of paralytic ileus following major abdominal surgery, but did not accelerate early recovery of bowel function. This was independent of narcotic use and had no increase in post-operative complications.

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