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Therapeutic effects of chloroquine in combination with quinine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

Author(s): Vanijanonta S, Chantra A, Phophak N, Chindanond D, Clemens R, Pukrittayakamee S

Affiliation(s): Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand.

Publication date & source: 1996-06, Ann Trop Med Parasitol., 90(3):269-75.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

The efficacy and toxicity of oral quinine combined with oral chloroquine were studied in 50 Thai men with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. All were treated for 7 days with quinine sulphate (10 mg salt/kg every 8 h). Twenty-five of the patients, selected at random, were also given oral tetracycline (4 mg/kg four times daily) over the same period and the remainder were given chloroquine (25 mg base/kg over the first 3 days). There were no serious adverse effects. Overall fever-clearance times (FCT) and parasite-clearance times (PCT) in the chloroquine and tetracycline groups were not significantly different, with mean (S.D.) values of 51 (33) and 41 (27) h for FCT and 80 (25) and 83 (21) h for PCT, respectively. Most of the patients (18 in each group) were followed for > or = 2 months. Recrudescence rates (R1) were significantly higher in the chloroquine group than in the tetracycline group (39% v. 6%; P = 0.02), all recrudescences occurring within 4 weeks (18-25 days) of starting treatment. Subsequent parasitaemia with Plasmodium vivax, however, occurred less frequently in the chloroquine group (11%) than in the tetracycline group (33%) (P = 0.11) and took longer to develop in the chloroquine group [51 or 59 days compared with a mean (S.D.) value of 29 (10) days in the tetracycline group; P = 0.01]. Within the chloroquine group, FCT and PCT were both shorter in those with cure than in those with R1 resistance, with mean (S.D.) values of 41 (25) and 70 (33) h for FCT (P = 0.09) and 72 (20) and 100 (18) h for PCT (P = 0.01), respectively. Chloroquine does not potentiate the clinical response to quinine against resistant strains of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, nor does it convey any useful antipyretic effect.

Page last updated: 2006-01-31

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