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A randomized trial of a single-dose rasburicase versus five-daily doses in patients at risk for tumor lysis syndrome.

Author(s): Vadhan-Raj S, Fayad LE, Fanale MA, Pro B, Rodriguez A, Hagemeister FB, Bueso-Ramos CE, Zhou X, McLaughlin PW, Fowler N, Shah J, Orlowski RZ, Samaniego F, Wang M, Cortes JE, Younes A, Kwak LW, Sarlis NJ, Romaguera JE.

Affiliation(s): Department of Sarcoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, MD, USA. svadhanr@mdanderson.org

Publication date & source: 2012, Ann Oncol. , 23(6):1640-5

BACKGROUND: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening disorder characterized by hyperuricemia and metabolic derangements. The efficacy of rasburicase, administered daily for 5 days, has been well established. However, the optimal duration of therapy is unknown in adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy of rasburicase (0.15 mg/kg) administered as single dose followed by as needed dosing (maximum five doses) versus daily dosing for 5 days in adult patients at risk for TLS. RESULTS: Eighty of the 82 patients enrolled received rasburicase; 40 high risk [median uric acid (UA) 8.5 mg/dl; range, 1.5-19.7] and 40 potential risk (UA = 5.6 mg/dl; range, 2.4-7.4). Seventy-nine patients (99%) experienced normalization in their UA within 4 h after the first dose; 84% to an undetectable level (<0.7 mg/dl). Thirty-nine of 40 (98%) patients in the daily-dose arm and 34 of 40 (85%) patients in single-dose arm showed sustained UA response. Six high-risk patients within the single-dose arm required second dose for UA >7.5 mg/dl. Rasburicase was well tolerated; one patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency developed methemoglobinemia and hemolysis. CONCLUSIONS: Rasburicase is highly effective for prevention and management of hyperuricemia in adults at risk for TLS. Single-dose rasburicase was effective in most patients; only a subset of high-risk patients required a second dose.

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