Short-term oral endothelin-receptor antagonist therapy in conventionally treated patients with symptomatic severe chronic heart failure.
Author(s): Sutsch G, Kiowski W, Yan XW, Hunziker P, Christen S, Strobel W, Kim JH, Rickenbacher P, Bertel O
Affiliation(s): Divisions of Cardiology, Departments of Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland.
Publication date & source: 1998-11-24, Circulation., 98(21):2262-8.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
BACKGROUND: The vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) is important for increased vascular tone in patients with chronic heart failure, but the effects of endothelin-receptor blockade in addition to conventional triple therapy are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-six men (mean age+/-SD, 55+/-8 years) with symptomatic heart failure (NYHA class III; left ventricular ejection fraction, 22.4+/-4.5%) despite treatment with diuretics, digoxin, and ACE inhibitors received, in a double-blind and randomized fashion, either additional oral bosentan (1.0 g BID; n=24) or placebo (n=12) over 2 weeks. Hemodynamic and hormonal (plasma ET-1, norepinephrine, renin activity, and angiotensin II) measurements were obtained before and repeatedly for 24 hours after administration of bosentan on days 1 and 14. Bosentan was discontinued in 1 patient with symptomatic hypotension, and 2 patients (bosentan group) declined hemodynamic investigations on day 14. Compared with placebo, bosentan on day 1 significantly decreased mean arterial pressure (difference from baseline over 12 hours [95% CIs], -13.9% [-16.0% to -11.7%]), pulmonary artery mean (-12.9% [-17. 4% to -8.3%]) and capillary wedge (-14.5% [-20.5% to -8.5%]) pressures, and right atrial pressure (-20.2% [-29.4% to -11.0%]). Cardiac output increased (15.1% [10.7% to 19.7%]), but heart rate was unchanged. Both systemic (-24.2% [-28.1% to -20.3%]) and pulmonary (-19.9% [-28.4% to -11.4%]) vascular resistance were reduced. After 2 weeks, cardiac output had further increased (by 15. 2% [10.8% to 19.6%]) and systemic (-9.3% [-12.3% to -6.4%]) and pulmonary (-9.7% [-16.3% to -3.1%]) vascular resistances further decreased compared with day 1. Heart rate remained unchanged. Plasma ET-1 levels increased after bosentan, but baseline levels of the other hormones were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Additional short-term oral endothelin-receptor antagonist therapy improved systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics in heart failure patients who were symptomatic with standard triple-drug therapy. Further investigations are warranted to characterize the effects of long-term endothelin-receptor antagonist therapy on symptoms, morbidity, and mortality in such patients.