Pharmacokinetics of azithromycin and moxifloxacin in human conjunctiva and aqueous humor during and after the approved dosing regimens.
Author(s): Stewart WC, Crean CS, Zink RC, Brubaker K, Haque RM, Hwang DG
Affiliation(s): PRN Pharmaceutical Research Network, LLC, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.
Publication date & source: 2010-11, Am J Ophthalmol., 150(5):744-751.e2. Epub 2010 Sep 1.
Publication type: Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PURPOSE: To evaluate the ocular pharmacokinetics of azithromycin and moxifloxacin in human conjunctiva and aqueous humor in subjects undergoing cataract surgery. DESIGN: Multicenter, open-label, randomized study. METHODS: Subjects scheduled for routine cataract surgery and with normal-appearing conjunctiva were eligible. One conjunctival biopsy sample and 1 aqueous humor sample were obtained from subjects randomly assigned to 1 of 10 prespecified time points (1 to 312 hours) after treatment initiation of azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% or moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5%. Samples were assayed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Azithromycin 1% provided high concentrations (peak level, 559.7 mug/g) in human conjunctiva that were sustained at levels 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of moxifloxacin 0.5% throughout the 7-day dosing period and for at least 7 days thereafter. Azithromycin also showed an extended half-life (65.7 hours) in conjunctiva relative to that of moxifloxacin (28.6 hours). Accordingly, the concentration of azithromycin was maintained well above the minimum inhibitory concentration required for inhibition of growth of 90% of tested bacterial isolates for at least 7 days, whereas moxifloxacin conjunctival levels fell to levels at or less than the minimum inhibitory concentration required for inhibition of growth of 90% of tested bacterial isolates approximately 24 hours after the last dose. Peak aqueous humor concentration of moxifloxacin was higher (0.77 mug/mL) than that of azithromycin (0.053 mug/mL). No clinically relevant safety findings were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Azithromycin 1% demonstrated high, therapeutic levels in the conjunctiva that were maintained up to 7 days after completion of a 1-week dosing regimen. Aqueous humor levels, however, were subtherapeutic with this dosing regimen. In comparison, moxifloxacin achieved lower conjunctival tissue levels, but higher aqueous humor levels. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.