Patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and impaired platelet function benefit from preoperative desmopressin infusion.
Author(s): Steinlechner B, Zeidler P, Base E, Birkenberg B, Ankersmit HJ, Spannagl M, Quehenberger P, Hiesmayr M, Jilma B
Affiliation(s): Division of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Publication date & source: 2011-05, Ann Thorac Surg., 91(5):1420-6. Epub 2011 Mar 24.
Publication type: Randomized Controlled Trial
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe aortic valve stenosis have a markedly reduced platelet function as measured by a prolonged collagen adenosine diphosphate closure time (CADP-CT) determined by the platelet function analyzer PFA-100. We hypothesized that such patients may benefit from desmopressin when they present with prolonged CADP-CT due to the specific action of desmopressin on von Willebrand factor (VWF) and CADP-CT. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized placebo controlled trial, 43 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (due to severe aortic valve stenosis with CADP-CT>170 seconds) were given desmopressin 0.3 mug/kg or saline intravenously after induction of anesthesia. Measurement of CADP-CT, factor VIII activity, von Willebrand factor antigen, GpIb binding activity, ristocetin cofactor activity, collagen-binding activity, and multimers were performed after induction of anesthesia, one hour after desmopressin infusion, and 24 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: In the majority of patients, baseline values of von Willebrand factor related indices were normal, but increased one hour after infusion of desmopressin by 73% to 90% as compared with placebo. Selective loss of high molecular weight multimers was seen only in a minority of patients. The CADP-CT was greater than 170 seconds in 92% of screened patients, and desmopressin shortened CADP-CT by 48% versus baseline and reduced postoperative blood loss by 42% (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged CADP-CT indicates platelet dysfunction in severe aortic valve stenosis, and can guide the use of desmopressin as an effective prohemostatic agent in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Copyright (c) 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.