Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of single- and multiple-dose oral or intravenous linezolid, an oxazolidinone antibiotic, in healthy volunteers.
Author(s): Stalker DJ, Jungbluth GL, Hopkins NK, Batts DH
Affiliation(s): Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Pharmacia Corporation, 301 Henrietta Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49007, USA.
Publication date & source: 2003-05, J Antimicrob Chemother., 51(5):1239-46. Epub 2003 Mar 28.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Randomized Controlled Trial
AIMS: To determine the pharmacokinetics and tolerance of oral and intravenous linezolid, an oxazolidinone antibiotic, in healthy volunteers following single- and multiple-dose administration. METHODS: In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating trials, subjects were exposed either to oral (375, 500 or 625 mg) or intravenous (500 or 625 mg) linezolid or placebo twice daily. Serial blood and urine samples were obtained after the first- and multiple-dose administrations for up to 18 days. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were used to describe the disposition of linezolid. RESULTS: Plasma linezolid concentrations and area under the concentration-time curves increased proportionally with dose irrespective of the route of administration. Plasma linezolid concentrations remained above the MIC90 for susceptible target pathogens (4.0 mg/L) for the majority of the 12 h dosing interval. Mean clearance, half-life and volume of distribution were similar irrespective of dose for both the oral and intravenous routes. Linezolid was well tolerated and the frequency of drug-related adverse events was similar between the linezolid and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Oral and intravenous linezolid exhibit linear pharmacokinetics, with concentrations remaining above the target MIC90 for most of the dosing interval. These results support a twice-daily schedule for linezolid and demonstrate the feasibility of converting from intravenous to oral dosing without a dose adjustment.