Penetration of topically applied gatifloxacin 0.3%, moxifloxacin 0.5%, and ciprofloxacin 0.3% into the aqueous humor.
Author(s): Solomon R, Donnenfeld ED, Perry HD, Snyder RW, Nedrud C, Stein J, Bloom A
Affiliation(s): Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Rockville Centre, New York 11570, USA.
Publication date & source: 2005-03, Ophthalmology., 112(3):466-9.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial
PURPOSE: To investigate the aqueous penetration of 3 commercially available ophthalmic fluoroquinolones. DESIGN: Prospective, double-masked, clinical study. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two eyes of 52 patients. INTERVENTION: Fifty-two patients undergoing cataract surgery were given preoperative topical gatifloxacin 0.3% (Zymar), moxifloxacin 0.5% (Vigamox), or ciprofloxacin 0.3% (Ciloxan). The patients were instructed to use their antibiotic drops 4 times a day for 3 days before surgery. On the day of surgery, patients were given their assigned antibiotic every 15 minutes for 3 doses, 1 hour before their procedure. At the time of surgery, 0.1 ml of aqueous fluid was aspirated from the anterior chamber with an air cannula needle attached to a tuberculin syringe. The aspirate was immediately stored at -70 degrees C. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Fluoroquinolone concentrations were determined by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography assay technique with ultraviolet detection at a wavelength of 275 nm. RESULTS: Mean aqueous concentration of gatifloxacin in 16 eyes was 0.63 microg/ml (standard deviation [SD], 0.30), moxifloxacin in 14 eyes was 1.31 microg/ml (SD, 0.46), and the mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in 22 eyes was 0.15 microg/ml (SD, 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Both moxifloxacin (P<0.001) and gatifloxacin (P<0.005) penetrated the aqueous humor at significantly higher levels than ciprofloxacin. Moxifloxacin penetrated into the aqueous humor at significantly higher levels than gatifloxacin (P<0.05). The anterior chamber levels of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin may be due to the difference in antibiotic concentration.