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[Non-oral routes of administration of psychotropic agents]

Author(s): Sno HN, Schuitenmaker MG

Affiliation(s): Afd. Psychiatrie, Ziekenhuis De Heel, Zaandam. sno.h@deheel.nl

Publication date & source: 2000-01-15, Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd., 144(3):116-20.

Publication type: Review

For patients not able to take oral medication, a psychotropic agent may be selected not only according to its therapeutic and side effects but also to the optional alternative routes of administration. Partly because of the various options of routes of administration haloperidol is the first choice 'classic' antipsychotic medication. As to 'atypical' antipsychotics, the preparation of an ill-tasting clozapine liquid is possible. Lorazepam, clorazepate and diazepam injections (oil in water emulsion) or diazepam per rectiole are non-oral anxiolytics of first choice. Clomipramine and amitriptyline are the only parenteral antidepressants available in the Netherlands. Lithium tablets without controlled release may be administered as a suspension via a catheter. Carbamazepine or valproate may serve as a parenteral alternative for lithium. In case of extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotics, biperiden or promethazine may be administered parenterally.

Page last updated: 2006-01-31

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