Pharmacokinetics of propranolol after single and multiple dosing with sustained release propranolol or propranolol CR (innopran XL) , a new chronotherapeutic formulation.
Author(s): Sica D, Frishman WH, Manowitz N
Affiliation(s): Section of Clinical Pharmacology and Hypertension, Division of Nephrology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0160, USA. email@example.com
Publication date & source: 2003-05, Heart Dis., 5(3):176-81.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial
Blood pressure rises rapidly upon waking and may be responsible, in part, for the increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke during the morning hours. Current formulations and dosing of antihypertensive drugs do not provide maximum coverage during this vulnerable period. This study was performed to demonstrate that propranolol CR (Innopran XL), a novel chronotherapeutic formulation of propranolol designed for nighttime dosing, has appropriate pharmacokinetics to provide maximum cardioprotective effect in the morning. Pharmacokinetics of propranolol CR and sustained-release propranolol after single and multiple doses were determined in normal male volunteers in this open-label, 2-period crossover study. The drugs were dosed in the evening and serial blood samples were taken for determination of propranolol concentration the next 24 to 72 hours. After a single 160-mg dose of propranolol CR administered at 10 pm, absorption was delayed by about 4 hours, after which plasma concentration rose steadily, reaching a peak at about 10:00 am. In contrast, after dosing with sustained release propranolol, plasma levels of propranolol began to rise almost immediately, reaching a plateau between 4:00 am and 10:00 am. During multiple dosing, steady-state trough plasma concentrations were achieved after 2 days with either drug. After the final dose, the plasma profiles of both drugs were similar to those observed in the single-dose study. Bioavailability was similar for both formulations of propranolol. Propranolol CR exhibited appropriate pharmacokinetics for a chronotherapeutic approach to the treatment of hypertension.