The different extent of B and T cell immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapies in SCID patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency.
Author(s): Serana F, Sottini A, Chiarini M, Zanotti C, Ghidini C, Lanfranchi A, Notarangelo LD, Caimi L, Imberti L
Affiliation(s): Department of Biomedical Science and Biotechnology, University of Brescia, Italy.
Publication date & source: 2010-12-15, J Immunol., 185(12):7713-22. Epub 2010 Nov 5.
Publication type: Comparative Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
The lack of adenosine deaminase (ADA) leads to the accumulation of toxic metabolites, resulting in SCID. If the disease is left untreated, it is likely to have a fatal outcome in early infancy. Because hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enzyme replacement therapy with pegylated bovine ADA (PEG-ADA) are both provided in our hospital, we undertook a retrospective longitudinal comparative study of the extent of lymphocyte recovery in two groups of treated ADA-SCID children. Together with classical immunological parameters, we quantified the output of the new B and T cells from the production sites using the kappa-deleting recombination excision circle and TCR excision circle assay, and we monitored T cell repertoire diversification. We found that immune reconstitution was different following the two treatments. The stable production of kappa-deleting recombination excision circle(+) lymphocytes sustained an increase in B cell number in HSCT-treated patients, whereas in PEG-ADA-treated patients, it was accompanied by a significant and progressive decrease in circulating CD19(+) lymphocytes, which never reached the levels observed in age-matched children. The mobilization of TCR excision circle(+) cells, though lower than in controls, was stable with time after HSCT treatment, leading to a constant peripheral T cell number and to the diversification of the T cell repertoire; however, it was compromised in children receiving prolonged PEG-ADA therapy, whose T cells showed progressively narrowing T cell repertoires.