Pain on injection of propofol: a comparison of methylene blue and lidocaine.
Author(s): Salman AE, Salman MA, Saricaoglu F, Akinci SB, Aypar U
Affiliation(s): Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, TR-06100, Turkey. email@example.com
Publication date & source: 2011-06, J Clin Anesth., 23(4):270-4.
Publication type: Comparative Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether methylene blue, given before injection of propofol, was effective in reducing the frequency and severity of pain associated with propofol injection. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical study. SETTING: Operating room of a university hospital. PATIENTS: 90 adult, ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients undergoing elective surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups of 30 patients each. Group I received 50 mg of methylene blue, Group II received 40 mg of lidocaine, and Group III, the control group, was given normal saline. All drugs were given as a 2.0 mL bolus 45 seconds before propofol administration. MEASUREMENTS: Injection pain using vocal responses, facial grimacing, arm withdrawal, tears, and questioning of the patient were noted. A 4-point scale was used for documenting pain. MAIN RESULTS: Pain frequency was 90% in the saline group, whereas the frequencies were significantly lower in the lidocaine and methylene blue groups (26.7% and 40%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous pretreatment with methylene blue appears to be effective in reducing the pain during propofol injection. Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.