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A phase I study evaluating the effect of CDHP as a component of S-1 on the pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil.

Author(s): Saif MW, Rosen LS, Saito K, Zergebel C, Ravage-Mass L, Mendelson DS

Affiliation(s): Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. mws2138@columbia.edu

Publication date & source: 2011-02, Anticancer Res., 31(2):625-32.

Publication type: Clinical Trial, Phase I; Randomized Controlled Trial

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gimeracil (CDHP), a reversible dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and other related metabolites by comparing the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of S-1 (tegafur [FT] + CDHP + oteracil potassium [Oxo]) to that of FT alone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced solid tumors received single oral doses of S-1 (50 mg) and FT (800 mg) on days 1 and 8 in a randomized crossover fashion. Plasma samples were collected on days 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 10. Single-dose PK parameters were determined for FT, 5-FU and alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL). Following the single-dose crossover period, patients entered an extension phase and received treatment with S-1 b.i.d. for 14 days followed by a 7-day rest, repeated every 3 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients were enrolled; median age was 59 years and mean body surface area was 1.94 m(2). Following S-1 administration, 5-FU exposure was significantly greater (approximately 3-fold) compared to FT alone (p </= 0.0007 for AUC0-inf, AUC0-last, and C(max) of 5-FU) despite the 16-fold higher dose of FT administered alone compared to S-1, while plasma concentrations of FT and FBAL were significantly lower with S-1 (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Following both single- and multiple-dose administration of S-1, the average maximum DPD inhibition was observed at 4 h post-dose. The extent of inhibition was similar following single and multiple dosing. Following single- and multiple-dose administration of S-1, plasma concentrations of uracil returned to baseline levels within approximately 48 h of dosing, indicating reversibility of DPD inhibition by CDHP. CONCLUSION: Despite the differences in the FT dose administered, exposure to 5-FU was significantly greater following S-1 administration compared to FT administration. Conversely, exposure to FT and FBAL were significantly less following S-1 administration compared to FT administration. Thus, the DPD inhibitory action of CDHP contributes to a decrease in 5-FU catabolism and to significantly higher blood levels of 5-FU compared to FT alone.

Page last updated: 2011-12-09

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