Effect on cellular and humoral immune responses of the AS03 adjuvant system in an A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus vaccine administered to adults during two randomized controlled trials.
Author(s): Roman F, Clement F, Dewe W, Walravens K, Maes C, Willekens J, De Boever F, Hanon E, Leroux-Roels G
Affiliation(s): GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Wavre, Belgium.
Publication date & source: 2011-05, Clin Vaccine Immunol., 18(5):835-43. Epub 2011 Mar 30.
Publication type: Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
The influence of AS03(A), a tocopherol oil-in-water emulsion-based adjuvant system, on humoral and cell-mediated responses to A/California/7/2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine was investigated. In two observer-blind studies, a total of 261 healthy adults aged 18 to 60 years were randomized to receive either AS03(A)-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine containing 3.75 mug hemagglutinin (HA) or nonadjuvanted H1N1 vaccine containing 15 or 3.75 mug HA on days 0 and 21. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody and T-cell responses were analyzed up to day 42. A first dose of AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine (3.75 mug HA) or nonadjuvanted vaccine (15 mug HA) induced HI responses of similar magnitudes that exceeded licensure criteria (e.g., 94 to 100% with titers of >/= 40). A lower response following 3.75 mug HA without adjuvant was observed (73% with titers of >/= 40). Following a second dose, geometric mean HI titers at day 42 were higher for AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine (636 and 637) relative to nonadjuvanted vaccine (341 for 15 mug HA and 150 for 3.75 mug HA). Over the 42-day period, the increase in frequency of A/H1N1/2009-specific CD4 T cells was significantly higher in the adjuvanted group than in the nonadjuvanted group. There was no evidence of correlation between baseline CD4 T-cell frequencies and day 21 HI antibody titers, while there was some correlation (R = 0.35) between day 21 CD4 T-cell frequencies and day 42 HI titers. AS03(A) adjuvant enhanced the humoral and CD4 T-cell-mediated responses to A/H1N1/2009 vaccine. Baseline A/H1N1/2009-specific CD4 T-cell frequencies did not predict post-dose 1 antibody responses, but there was some correlation between post-dose 1 CD4 T-cell frequencies and post-dose 2 antibody responses.